12,173 research outputs found

    Numerical Solution of Quantum-Mechanical Pair Equations

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    We discuss and illustrate the numerical solution of the differential equation satisfied by the first‐order pair functions of Sinanoğlu. An expansion of the pair function in spherical harmonics and the use of finite difference methods convert the differential equation into a set of simultaneous equations. Large systems of such equations can be solved economically. The method is simple and straightforward, and we have applied it to the first‐order pair function for helium with 1 / r_(12) as the perturbation. The results are accurate and encouraging, and since the method is numerical they are indicative of its potential for obtaining atomic‐pair functions in general

    Configuration interaction studies of the excited states of water

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    We report the results of extensive configuration interaction studies on 16 excited states of water. These states can be accurately described as corresponding to excitation from one of the highest two molecular orbitals (1b_1 or 3a_1) of the ground state into either the 3s or one of the three 3p Rydberg orbitals. The results provide the most accurate and consistent treatment of these states to date (within 0.1 eV for all known transitions) and form a reliable basis for the assignment of the photon and electron impact spectra of H_2O

    The 8^8B Neutrino Spectrum

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    Knowledge of the energy spectrum of 8^8B neutrinos is an important ingredient for interpreting experiments that detect energetic neutrinos from the Sun. The neutrino spectrum deviates from the allowed approximation because of the broad alpha-unstable 8^8Be final state and recoil order corrections to the beta decay. We have measured the total energy of the alpha particles emitted following the beta decay of 8^8B. The measured spectrum is inconsistent with some previous measurements, in particular with a recent experiment of comparable precision. The beta decay strength function for the transition from 8^8B to the accessible excitation energies in 8^8Be is fit to the alpha energy spectrum using the R-matrix approach. Both the positron and neutrino energy spectra, corrected for recoil order effects, are constructed from the strength function. The positron spectrum is in good agreement with a previous direct measurement. The neutrino spectrum disagrees with previous experiments, particularly for neutrino energies above 12 MeV.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures, 4 tables, submitted to Phys. Rev. C, typos correcte

    Very long O-antigen chains enhance fitness during Salmonella-induced colitis by increasing bile resistance.

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    Intestinal inflammation changes the luminal habitat for microbes through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. We noticed that the FepE regulator of very long O-antigen chain assembly in the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) conferred a luminal fitness advantage in the mouse colitis model. However, a fepE mutant was not defective for survival in tissue, resistance to complement or resistance to polymyxin B. We performed metabolite profiling to identify changes in the luminal habitat that accompany S. Typhimurium-induced colitis. This analysis suggested that S. Typhimurium-induced colitis increased the luminal concentrations of total bile acids. A mutation in fepE significantly reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. Typhimurium for bile acids in vitro. Oral administration of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine resin lowered the concentrations of total bile acids in colon contents during S. Typhimurium infection and significantly reduced the luminal fitness advantage conferred by the fepE gene in the mouse colitis model. Collectively, these data suggested that very long O-antigen chains function in bile acid resistance of S. Typhimurium, a property conferring a fitness advantage during luminal growth in the inflamed intestine

    EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model

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    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth's biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and provides feedbacks on oxygen and nutrient cycles. To investigate the Earth system nitrogen cycle over geologic history, we have constructed a new nitrogen cycle model: EarthN. This model is driven by mantle cooling, links biologic nitrogen cycling to phosphate and oxygen, and incorporates geologic and biologic fluxes. Model output is consistent with large (2-4x) changes in atmospheric mass over time, typically indicating atmospheric drawdown and nitrogen sequestration into the mantle and continental crust. Critical controls on nitrogen distribution include mantle cooling history, weathering, and the total Bulk Silicate Earth+atmosphere nitrogen budget. Linking the nitrogen cycle to phosphorous and oxygen levels, instead of carbon as has been previously done, provides new and more dynamic insight into the history of nitrogen on the planet.Comment: 36 pages, 12 figure

    A nonlocal eigenvalue problem and the stability of spikes for reaction-diffusion systems with fractional reaction rates

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    We consider a nonlocal eigenvalue problem which arises in the study of stability of spike solutions for reaction-diffusion systems with fractional reaction rates such as the Sel'kov model, the Gray-Scott system, the hypercycle Eigen and Schuster, angiogenesis, and the generalized Gierer-Meinhardt system. We give some sufficient and explicit conditions for stability by studying the corresponding nonlocal eigenvalue problem in a new range of parameters

    A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

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    Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint), and 6-months (maintenance). The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter) contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families

    Upper critical field study in the organic superconductor β\beta''-(ET)2_{2}SF5_{5}CH2_{2}CF2_{2}SO3_{3} : Possibility of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state

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    We report upper critical field measurements in the metal-free-all-organic superconductor β\beta''-(ET)2_{2}SF5_{5}CH2_{2}CF2_{2}SO3_{3} obtained from measuring the in-plane penetration depth using the tunnel diode oscillator technique. For magnetic field applied parallel to the conducting planes the low temperature upper critical fields are found to exceed the Pauli limiting field calculated by using a semi-empirical method. Furthermore, we found a signature that could be the phase transition between the superconducting vortex state and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in the form of a kink just below the upper critical field and only at temperatures below 1.23 K.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figure
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