2,765 research outputs found

    The timing and magnitude of upper body muscular activity during a field hockey hit

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions to stick motion in the field hockey hit by monitoring muscle activity in the arms and trunk and synchronising these with arm and stick kinematics. The hits of ten male, university-level field hockey players were analysed. Whilst their interpretation is complicated by the closed kinetic loop formed by the arms and stick, the data collected here represent a step forward in establishing the contributions from muscular activity and segmental interactions to the field hockey hit. This study has shown that EMG analysis alone is not sufficient to explain the nature of muscular activity patterns and that the temporal aspects of EMG need to be examined in combination with kinematic data to ascertain the role of muscular activity during movement

    The clubhead and hand planes in golf draw and fade shots.

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    Swing planes in golf have become a popular area of research. Cochran and Stobbs (1968) examined the motion of the clubhead and hands qualitatively. Subsequent quantitative analyses have included investigations of the planarity of the whole club (Coleman & Anderson, 2007) and clubhead (Shin, Casebolt, Lambert, Kim, & Kwon, 2008). The aim of this study was to investigate the motion of the clubhead and hands in the downswing quantitatively, and to compare these motions for the fade and draw (as suggested by Coleman and Anderson, 2007). In conclusion, both the clubhead and hand planes in the late downswing were found to differ significantly in relation to the target line between the draw and fade shots. Greater differences were found between golfers, rather than between shots, in the relationship between the clubhead and hand motion during the downswing. Nevertheless, further detailed analysis is warranted of how the motions around impact – especially the clubface orientation – differ between the two types of shot

    Competitive swimmers modify racing start depth upon request

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    To expand upon recent findings showing that competitive swimmers complete significantly shallower racing starts in shallower pools, 12 more experienced and 13 less experienced swimmers were filmed underwater during completion of competitive starts. Two starts (1 routine and 1 “requested shallow”) were executed from a 0.76 m block height into water 3.66 m deep. Dependent measures were maximum head depth, head speed at maximum head depth, and distance from the starting wall at maximum head depth. Statistical analyses yielded significant main effects (p < 0.05) for both start type and swimmer experience. Starts executed by the more experienced swimmers were deeper and faster than those executed by the less experienced swimmers. When asked to dive shallowly, maximum head depth decreased (0.19 m) and head speed increased (0.33 ms-1) regardless of experience. The ability of all swimmers to modify start depth implies that spinal cord injuries during competitive swimming starts are not necessarily due to an inherent inability to control the depth of the start

    Block height influences the head depth of competitive racing starts

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    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not starting block height has an effect on the head depth and head speed of competitive racing starts. Eleven experienced, collegiate swimmers executed competitive racing starts from three different starting heights: 0.21 m (pool deck), 0.46 m (intermediate block), and 0.76 m (standard block). One-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that starting height had a significant effect on the maximum depth of the center of the head, head speed at maximum head depth, and distance from starting wall at maximum head depth. Racing starts from the standard block and pool deck were significantly deeper, faster, and farther at maximum head depth than starts from the intermediate block. There were no differences between depth, speed, or distance between the standard block and pool deck. We conclude that there is not a positive linear relationship between starting depth and starting height, which means that starts do not necessarily get deeper as the starting height increases

    Racing start safety: head depth and head speed during competitive backstroke starts

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    Research on competitive swim start safety has focused on starts involving a dive from above the water surface. The purpose of this study was to determine the depths, speeds, and distances attained when executing backstroke starts, which begin in the water, and to investigate whether or not these variables are a function of age. Backstroke starts (n = 122) performed in 1.22 m of water during competition were stratified according to age group (8&U, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, and 15&O). Dependent measures were maximum depth of the center of the head (MHD), head speed at maximum head depth (SPD), and distance from the wall at maximum head depth (DIST). Main effects were shown for age group for MHD (F = 8.86, p < 0.05), SPD (F = 4.64, p < 0.05), and DIST (F = 17.21, p < 0.05). Because they performed starts that were deeper and faster than the younger swimmers, the older swimmers seem to be at a greater risk for injury when performing backstroke starts in shallow water

    Racing start safety: head depth and head speed during competitive starts into a water depth of 1.22 m

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    From the perspective of swimmer safety, there have been no quantitative 3-dimensional studies of the underwater phase of racing starts during competition. To do so, 471 starts were filmed during a meet with a starting depth of 1.22 m and block height of 0.76 m. Starts were stratified according to age (8 & U, 9–10, 11–12, 13–14, and 15 & O) and stroke during the first lap (freestyle, breaststroke, and butterfly). Dependent measures were maximum head depth, head speed at maximum head depth, and distance from the wall at maximum head depth. For all three variables, there were significant main effects for age, F(4, 456) = 12.53, p < .001, F(4, 456) = 27.46, p < .001, and F(4, 456) = 54.71, p < .001, respectively, and stroke, F(2, 456) = 16.91, p < .001, F(2, 456) = 8.45, p < .001, and F(2, 456) = 18.15, p < .001, respectively. The older swimmers performed starts that were deeper and faster than the younger swimmers and as a result, the older swimmers may be at a greater risk for injury when performing starts in this pool depth

    Water depth influences the head depth of competitive racing starts

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    Recent research suggests that swimmers perform deeper starts in deeper water (Blitvich, McElroy, Blanksby, Clothier, & Pearson, 2000; Cornett, White, Wright, Willmott, & Stager, 2011). To provide additional information relevant to the depth adjustments swimmers make as a function of water depth and the validity of values reported in prior literature, 11 collegiate swimmers were asked to execute racing starts in three water depths (1.53 m, 2.14 m, and 3.66 m). One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the maximum depth of the center of the head was significantly deeper in 3.66 m as compared to the shallower water depths. No differences due to water depth were detected in head speed at maximum head depth or in the distance from the wall at which maximum head depth occurred. We concluded that swimmers can and do make head depth adjustments as a function of water depth. Earlier research performed in deep water may provide overestimates of maximum head depth following the execution of a racing start in water depth typical of competitive venues

    Start depth modification by adolescent competitive swimmers

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    To expand upon previous studies showing inexperienced high school swimmers can complete significantly shallower racing starts when asked to start “shallow,” 42 age group swimmers (6-14 years old) were filmed underwater during completion of competitive starts. Two starts (one normal and one “requested shallow”) were executed from a 0.76 m block into 1.83 m of water. Dependent measures were maximum depth of the center of the head, head speed at maximum head depth, and distance from the starting wall at maximum head depth. Statistical analyses yielded significant main effects (p < 0.05) for start type and age. The oldest swimmers’ starts were deeper and faster than the youngest swimmers’ starts. When asked to start shallowly, maximum head depth decreased (0.10 m) and head speed increased (0.32 ms-1) regardless of age group. The ability of all age groups to modify start depth implies that spinal cord injuries during competitive swimming starts are not necessarily due to age-related deficits in basic motor skills

    Racing start safety: head depth and head speed during competitive swim starts into a water depth of 2.29m

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    The head depths and head speeds of swimmers attained following the execution of racing starts during competition have not been well described. To address this, 211 competitive starts were filmed into a starting depth of 2.29 m with a block height of 0.76 m. Starts were stratified according to age, sex, stroke, and swim meet. Dependent measures were maximum depth of the center of the head, head speed at maximum head depth, and distance from the wall at maximum head depth. Significant main effects existed for age for all three measures: F(1, 106) = 13.33, p < .001, F(1, 106) = 18.60, p < .001 and F(1, 106) = 70.59, p < .001, respectively. There was a significant age by sex interaction, F(1, 106) = 5.36, p = 0.023, for head speed. In conclusion, older swimmers performed starts that were deeper and faster than younger swimmers and nearly all starts exceeded the threshold speeds for injury. As compared to starts previously reported into 1.22 m, starts were deeper, slower, and farther from the starting wall at maximum head depth
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