794 research outputs found

    Social exclusion and the future of cities

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    In both Britain and the United States, people have been moving away from the inner cities to suburban developments, often leaving behind concentrations of poverty and decaying neighbourhoods. Anne Power's paper focuses on the British situation. As Britain comes to terms with the implications of urban renaissance, a new way must be found of looking at regeneration based on rebuilding urban neighbourhoods. The key points for the future are: limiting suburban land supply and creating higher density in depleted urban neighbourhoods; equalising the incentives to recycle old buildings and used land rather than greenfield sites; improving public transport; managing neighbourhoods to encourage a social mix; and protecting green spaces. William Julius Wilson, looking at the American situation, addresses the rediscovery of 'metropolitan solutions' as answers to the common problems of America's cities and suburbs. This rediscovery reflects the recognition that metropolitan areas constitute the real competitive units in the new economy and that competitiveness requires a healthy urban core; the growing awareness that complex issues such as pollution and traffic congestion cross boundaries and are immune to localised fixes; and the co-existence of persistent joblessness in the central cities and labour shortages in the suburbs

    Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

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    In both Britain and the United States, people have been moving away from the inner cities to suburban developments, often leaving behind concentrations of poverty and decaying neighbourhoods. Anne Power's paper focuses on the British situation. As Britain comes to terms with the implications of urban renaissance, a new way must be found of looking at regeneration based on rebuilding urban neighbourhoods. The key points for the future are: limiting suburban land supply and creating higher density in depleted urban neighbourhoods; equalising the incentives to recycle old buildings and used land rather than greenfield sites; improving public transport; managing neighbourhoods to encourage a social mix; and protecting green spaces. William Julius Wilson, looking at the American situation, addresses the rediscovery of 'metropolitan solutions' as answers to the common problems of America's cities and suburbs. This rediscovery reflects the recognition that metropolitan areas constitute the real competitive units in the new economy and that competitiveness requires a healthy urban core; the growing awareness that complex issues such as pollution and traffic congestion cross boundaries and are immune to localised fixes; and the co-existence of persistent joblessness in the central cities and labour shortages in the suburbs.Social exclusion, urban poverty, area regeneration, urban development

    Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading system: LURNZ-climate land use change simulations

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    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was introduced through the Climate Change Response Act in September 2008 and remains in force. The forestry sector has been directly affected by the NZ ETS since 1 January 2008 and stationary energy, liquid fuels and industrial emissions have been affected since 1 July 2010. When it is fully implemented in 2015 it will cover all sources and gases including agricultural emissions. Using the Land Use in Rural New Zealand model (LURNZ), we simulate rural land use changes that could be driven by the NZETS in order that we can explore their potential implications for emissions and removals (sequestration) and rural incomes and land values. This paper documents our simulation methods and presents short term (up to 2015) simulations for moderate prices ($25 New Zealand dollars per tonne of CO2-e) where our current modelling techniques are most robust.Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty,

    An analysis of pupils' likes and dislikes

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    Thesis (Ed.M.)--Boston Universit

    Internal Mobility in New Zealand

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    What characteristics push people to move and what pulls them to a new location? Evidence from the US has suggested that people are pulled to cities with a high population density and with large concentrations of skilled people. But how does this apply to New Zealand? Where are people moving to and from and what are the characteristics associated with the migrants' origins and destinations? This paper investigates the effect that the characteristics of a community have on the likelihood of people leaving and/or travelling to the community. The movement of people is obtained from a mobility table produced from census data by Statistics New Zealand. We use geographical information system (GIS) tools to define variables based on aggregations of meshblocks around the area units of interest. How does migration vary geographically across New Zealand? We model migration decisions and investigate their causes. Who moves and where do they go? We investigate the broad characteristics of areas that exhibit high losses and/or gains in population through migration. We investigate the relationship between the level of turnover or 'churning' of people with the characteristics of the population in that area.

    Store of 1970 here at last!

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    Land use in rural New Zealand: spatial land use, land-use change, and model validation

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    Abstract Land is an important social and economic resource. Knowing the spatial distribution of land use and the expected location of future land-use change is important to inform decision makers. This paper documents and validates the baseline land-use maps and the algorithm for spatial land-use change incorporated in the Land Use in Rural New Zealand model (LURNZ). At the time of writing, LURNZ is the only national-level land-use model of New Zealand. While developed for New Zealand, the model provides an intuitive algorithm that would be straightforward to apply to different locations and at different spatial resolutions. LURNZ is based on a heuristic model of dynamic land-use optimisation with conversion costs. It allocates land-use changes to each pixel using a combination of pixel probabilities in a deterministic algorithm and calibration to national-level changes. We simulate out of sample and compare to observed data. As a result of the model construction, we underestimate the “churn” in land use. We demonstrate that the algorithm assigns changes in land use to pixels that are similar in quality to the pixels where land-use changes are observed to occur. We also show that there is a strong positive relationship between observed territorial-authority-level dairy changes and simulated changes in dairy area
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