83 research outputs found

    Listening to Patients and Talking to Doctors: A Case for Design in Medicine, & A Call to Action

    Get PDF
    This paper describes how design can work at a fundamental level to improve health in the United States. It argues for a design application that levels the playing field between the doctor and the patient in a way that re-establishes the person as the center of medical advancement. It uses the inclusion of a design research oriented Patient Engagement Core within a current study at the Indiana University School of Medicine as a way to demonstrate the relevance of design to health research. We touch upon the research environment established by the National Institutes of Health as a driver for the relevance of design in medicine, and finally, we suggest that designers use their visual communication and design research skills within health research to increase its relevancy to patients and the population, and ‘make the science stick’ through better understanding of patient perspectives. We assert that by entering discourse in health at this foundational stage we contribute to a new understanding of what health is, who might contribute to its improvement, who determines the relevancy of research, and how such research is used

    Photo-Elicitation as an Adjunct to Structured Interviews When Assessing Ideal Romantic and Sexual Relationships

    Get PDF
    Structured interviews have been used as an assessment tool in clinical and research settings for many years. However, such interviews have limitations, especially when questions are abstract from the daily life experiences of adolescents and young adults (e.g., “What are all the qualities you desire in a romantic partner?”). Accordingly, photo-elicitation was incorporated as a tool into how young women perceive ideal romantic and sexual relationships

    Associations between child and sibling levels of vigorous physical activity in low-income minority families

    Get PDF
    AbstractBackground and objectivesA child's level of habitual physical activity is partly determined by a familial component, but the literature is limited regarding sibling influences. Multiple studies suggest that targeting siblings is an effective strategy for improving child health behaviors.Patients and methodsWe analyze Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing (MTO) data to study associations between the odds of a child attaining 20 min or more of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days every week and parallel measures from an older sibling and a parent. We include covariates representing the social environment such as household income and neighborhood safety.ResultsThere were 1347 study units that consisted of a child (age 11.2 y ± 2.6), an older sibling (age 14.8 y ± 2.8), and a parent (age 38.3 y ± 7.5). A child's odds of vigorous physical activity for 20 min or more was increased if the older sibling (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.32–2.11) or parent (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.08–1.72) had a comparable activity level compared to children whose older siblings or parents did not exhibit a comparable level of activity.ConclusionsA younger sibling's level of physical activity is positively associated with an older sibling's and/or parent's level of physical activity. Family-based approaches, especially those incorporating siblings, may be effective at increasing physical activity in children

    Flexibility in Faculty Work-Life Policies at Medical Schools in the Big Ten Conference

    Get PDF
    Purpose: Women lag behind men in several key academic indicators, such as advancement, retention, and securing leadership positions. Although reasons for these disparities are multifactorial, policies that do not support work-life integration contribute to the problem. The objective of this descriptive study was to compare the faculty work-life policies among medical schools in the Big Ten conference. Methods: Each institution's website was accessed in order to assess its work-life policies in the following areas: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of probationary period, part-time appointments, part-time benefits (specifically health insurance), child care options, and lactation policy. Institutions were sent requests to validate the online data and supply additional information if needed. Results: Each institution received an overall score and subscale scores for family leave policies and part-time issues. Data were verified by the human resources office at 8 of the 10 schools. Work-life policies varied among Big Ten schools, with total scores between 9.25 and 13.5 (possible score: 0–21; higher scores indicate greater flexibility). Subscores were not consistently high or low within schools. Conclusions: Comparing the flexibility of faculty work-life policies in relation to other schools will help raise awareness of these issues and promote more progressive policies among less progressive schools. Ultimately, flexible policies will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty

    Center for Urban Health: Enhancing the health of cities by focusing on communities and the environment

    Get PDF
    Urban sustainability is a new philosophy of developing healthy, productive communities that (1) promote and use locally-produced foods and products, (2) ensure safe access to natural spaces, and (3) establish low-carbon transportation systems. Urban living is arguably the most sustainable form of community given the concentration of resources, protection of arable land, and vertical structure of housing. In fact, urbanization is becoming the global norm; the percentage of global population living in urban settings has increased from less than 30% in 1950 to 47% in 2000; the percentage of urban dwellers is expected to increase to 60% by 2025. The promise of a healthy and sustainable urban future is clouded, however, by the reality of environmental insults, economic disparities, and behavioral pressures that exist in modern cities. The challenge is not how to build a shiny carbon-neutral city from scratch, but rather how to transition our current urban state toward one that is healthier, has less environmental impact, and is more prepared to respond and adjust to variety of environmental, social, and health changes in the future. Several groups at IUPUI and in the community are collaborating to explore connections between environment, behavior, health, and climate as related to urban environments. These translational efforts are inter- and trans-disciplinary, as evidenced by earth scientists publishing with pediatricians, and geographers publishing with epidemiologists. These efforts are largely undertaken with a geospatial and geotemporal research template. This template allows environmental, health, and behavioral data to be collected individually but with reference to space and time, which become important metadata components for analysis. The Center for Urban Health promotes discovery by building research collaborations among Center Investigators, conducting workshops on cutting-edge developments in urban health, and bridging campus and community efforts in public health, including the Reconnecting to Our Waterways (RWO) initiative

    The Unanticipated Benefits of Behavioral Assessments and Interviews on Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Depression Among Women Engaging in Transactional Sex

    Get PDF
    Women engaging in transactional sex have disproportional mental health co-morbidity and face substantial barriers to accessing social services. We hypothesized that participation in a longitudinal research study, with no overt intervention, would lead to short-term mental health improvements. For 4-weeks, 24 women disclosed information about their lives via twice daily cell-phone diaries and weekly interviews. We used t tests to compare self-esteem, anxiety, and depression at baseline and exit. Tests were repeated for hypothesized effect modifiers (e.g., substance abuse severity; age of sex work debut). For particularly vulnerable women (e.g., less educated, histories of abuse, younger initiation of sex work) participation in research conferred unanticipated mental health benefits. Positive interactions with researchers, as well as discussing lived experiences, may explain these effects. Additional studies are needed to confirm findings and identify mechanisms of change. This work contributes to the growing body of literature documenting that study participation improves mental health

    Adolescent Burmese Refugees Perspectives on Determinants of Health

    Get PDF
    Over 70,000 Burmese refugees have resettled in the United States in the past decade. While Burmese adolescents quickly acculturate into American society, their perspectives on health are not well-known. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent Burmese refugee perspectives on determinants of health and health-related experiences after resettlement. In this qualitative study, Burmese adolescents took photographs depicting health-related experiences that were used as elicitation tools during focus groups. These discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Participants described positive determinants of health, including family and church. Rampant tobacco use was identified by the participants as a determinant of poor health within the Burmese community. Notably, the participants were proud to serve as liaisons within their community, despite the stressful nature of this role. Our results highlight the need to screen this population for anxiety, secondary to serving as a liaison for their community, as well as tobacco use

    ‘I Got it off my Chest’: An Examination of how Research Participation Improved the Mental Health of Women Engaging in Transactional Sex

    Get PDF
    Ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) is a form of close-ended diary writing. While it has been shown that participating in a study that incorporates EMA improves mental health of participants, no study to date has examined the pathways through which benefits may occur. For 4-weeks, twice-daily EMAs and weekly interviews captured mood, daily activities and HIV risk behavior of 25 women who engage in transactional sex. Qualitative analysis of exit interviews was performed to examine how participation impacted women's mental health. The majority of participants felt that EMAs heightened awareness of emotions and behavior. Most reported experiencing catharsis from the interviews; specifically, from having a non-judgmental, trusting listener. Participants felt responsible for completing tasks, a sense of accomplishment for completing the study, and altruism. This study demonstrates there are direct benefits associated with participation in an EMA and interview study

    Codesigned Shared Decision-Making Diabetes Management Plan Tool for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Their Parents: Prototype Development and Pilot Test

    Get PDF
    Background: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus have difficulty achieving optimal glycemic control, partly due to competing priorities that interfere with diabetes self-care. Often, significant diabetes-related family conflict occurs, and adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about diabetes management may be disregarded. Patient-centered diabetes outcomes may be better when adolescents feel engaged in the decision-making process. Objective: The objective of our study was to codesign a clinic intervention using shared decision making for addressing diabetes self-care with an adolescent patient and parent advisory board. Methods: The patient and parent advisory board consisted of 6 adolescents (teens) between the ages 12 and 18 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents recruited through our institution’s Pediatric Diabetes Program. Teens and parents provided informed consent and participated in 1 or both of 2 patient and parent advisory board sessions, lasting 3 to 4 hours each. Session 1 topics were (1) patient-centered outcomes related to quality of life, parent-teen shared diabetes management, and shared family experiences; and (2) implementation and acceptability of a patient-centered diabetes care plan intervention where shared decision making was used. We analyzed audio recordings, notes, and other materials to identify and extract ideas relevant to the development of a patient-centered diabetes management plan. These data were visually coded into similar themes. We used the information to develop a prototype for a diabetes management plan tool that we pilot tested during session 2. Results: Session 1 identified 6 principal patient-centered quality-of-life measurement domains: stress, fear and worry, mealtime struggles, assumptions and judgments, feeling abnormal, and conflict. We determined 2 objectives to be principally important for a diabetes management plan intervention: (1) focusing the intervention on diabetes distress and conflict resolution strategies, and (2) working toward a verbalized common goal. In session 2, we created the diabetes management plan tool according to these findings and will use it in a clinical trial with the aim of assisting with patient-centered goal setting. Conclusions: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus can be effectively engaged and involved in patient-centered research design. Teens with type 1 diabetes mellitus prioritize reducing family conflict and fitting into their social milieu over health outcomes at this time in their lives. It is important to acknowledge this when designing interventions to improve health outcomes in teens with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Area-level incarceration and STI risk among a cohort of justice-involved adolescents and adults

    Get PDF
    Background: Living in areas of high incarceration is associated with increased risk of STI; however, STI risk with respect to both this area-level exposure and an individual’s involvement with the justice system is not known. Objective: Among individuals before and after arrest or incarceration, assess the association between area-level incarceration rates and risk of chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of individuals living in Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana who were arrested or in jail, prison, juvenile detention, or juvenile prison between 2005-2008 (N=97,765). Area-level incarceration exposure was defined by the proportion of person-days incarcerated among the total population*365 within a census block group. A 1-year period was assessed before and after a randomly-selected arrest/incarceration per person. Multivariable logistic regression, controlling for age, race, STI history, and year, was performed to assess chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis risk by quartile area-level incarceration exposure, adjusting for individual clustering and stratifying by gender. Results: Area-level incarceration was associated with increased odds of each STI, with a dose response relationship particularly among those with an arrest or jail stay. Women with a history of arrest or jail/prison stay and living in high incarceration areas had higher odds of STI, compared to men with comparable incarceration history and living in similar areas
    corecore