97 research outputs found

    Simulation of the Cosmic Ray Moon Shadow in the Geomagnetic field

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    An accurate MonteCarlo simulation of the deficit of primary cosmic rays in the direction of the Moon has been developed to interpret the observations reported in the TeV energy region until now. Primary particles are propagated trough the geomagnetic field in the Earth-Moon system. The algorithm is described and the contributions of the detector resolution and of the geomagnetic field are disentangled.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, Contribution to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland, July 200

    Mutually compensative pseudo solutions of primary energy spectra in the knee region

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    The problem of the uniqueness of solutions during the evaluation of primary energy spectra in the knee region using an extensive air shower (EAS) data set and the EAS inverse approach is investigated. It is shown that the unfolding of primary energy spectra in the knee region leads to mutually compensative pseudo solutions. These solutions may be the reason for the observed disagreements in the elementary energy spectra of cosmic rays in the 1-100 PeV energy range obtained from different experiments.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physic

    Cosmic-ray electron injection from the ionization of nuclei

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    We show that the secondary electrons ejected from the ionization of heavy ions can be injected into the acceleration process that occurs at supernova remnant shocks. This electron injection mechanism works since ions are ionized during the acceleration when they move already with relativistic speed, just like ejected electrons do. Using the abundances of heavy nuclei measured in cosmic rays at Earth, we estimate the electron/proton ratio at the source to be ~10^-4, big enough to account for the nonthermal synchrotron emission observed in young SNRs. We also show that the ionization process can limit the maximum energy that heavy ions can reach.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Physical Review Letter

    Cosmic ray photodisintegration and the knee of the spectrum

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    We explore in some detail the scenario proposed to explain the observed knee of the cosmic ray (CR) spectrum as due to the effects of photodisintegration of the CR nuclei by interactions with optical and soft UV photons in the source region. We show that the photon column densities needed to explain the experimental data are significantly lower than those obtained in previous estimations which neglected multinucleon emission in the photodisintegration process. We also treat more accurately the photodisintegration thresholds, we discuss the effects of photopion production processes and the neutron escape mechanism, identifying the physical processes responsible for the qualitative features of the results. This scenario would require the CR nuclei to traverse column densities of ‚ąľ5√ó1027‚ąí2√ó1028\sim 5 \times 10^{27}- 2 \times 10^{28} eV/cm2^2 after being accelerated in order to reproduce the observed knee, and predicts that the CR composition should become lighter above ‚ąľ1016\sim 10^{16} eV.Comment: 17 pp. Comments and references added. To appear in Astroparticle Physic

    Simulation of neutrino and charged particle production and propagation in the atmosphere

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    A precise evaluation of the secondary particle production and propagation in the atmosphere is very important for the atmospheric neutrino oscillation studies. The issue is addressed with the extension of a previously developed full 3-Dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of particle generation and transport in the atmosphere, to compute the flux of secondary protons, muons and neutrinos. Recent balloon borne experiments have performed a set of accurate flux measurements for different particle species at different altitudes in the atmosphere, which can be used to test the calculations for the atmospheric neutrino production, and constrain the underlying hadronic models. The simulation results are reported and compared with the latest flux measurements. It is shown that the level of precision reached by these experiments could be used to constrain the nuclear models used in the simulation. The implication of these results for the atmospheric neutrino flux calculation are discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figure

    New results on source and diffusion spectral features of Galactic cosmic rays: I- B/C ratio

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    In a previous study (Maurin et al., 2001), we explored the set of parameters describing diffusive propagation of cosmic rays (galactic convection, reacceleration, halo thickness, spectral index and normalization of the diffusion coefficient), and we identified those giving a good fit to the measured B/C ratio. This study is now extended to take into account a sixth free parameter, namely the spectral index of sources. We use an updated version of our code where the reacceleration term comes from standard minimal reacceleration models. The goal of this paper is to present a general view of the evolution of the goodness of fit to B/C data with the propagation parameters. In particular, we find that, unlike the well accepted picture, and in accordance with our previous study, a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum for diffusion is strongly disfavored. Rather, the Ōá2\chi^2 analysis points towards őī‚Č≥0.7\delta\gtrsim 0.7 along with source spectra index ‚Č≤2.0\lesssim 2.0. Two distinct energy dependences are used for the source spectra: the usual power-law in rigidity and a law modified at low energy, the second choice being only slightly preferred. We also show that the results are not much affected by a different choice for the diffusion scheme. Finally, we compare our findings to recent works, using other propagation models. This study will be further refined in a companion paper, focusing on the fluxes of cosmic ray nuclei.Comment: 32 pages, 13 figures, accepted in A&

    Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays observed

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    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.Comment: At TAUP99, the 6th international workshop on topics in Astroparticle Physics and Underground Physics, College de France, Eds. J. Dumarchez, M. Froissart, D. Vignaud, (Sep 1999

    The Galactic magnetic field and propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

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    The puzzle of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) still remains unresolved. With the progress in preparation of next generation experiments (AUGER, EUSO, OWL) grows also the importance of directional analysis of existing and future events. The Galactic magnetic field (GMF) plays the key role in source identification even in this energy range. We first analyze current status of our experimental and theoretical knowledge about GMF and introduce complex up-to-date model of GMF. Then we present two examples of simple applications of influence of GMF on UHECR propagation. Both examples are based on Lorentz equation solution. The first one is basic directional analysis of the incident directions of UHECRs and the second one is a simulation of a change of chemical composition of CRs in the energy range 10^13 - 10^19 eV. The results of these simple analyses are surprisingly rich - e.g. the rates of particle escape from the Galaxy or the amplifications of particle flux in specific directions.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&
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