22 research outputs found

    Animating Documentary Modes: Navigating a theoretical model for animated documentary practice

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    Music & Clowns is an animated documentary that intimately portrays the subjectivity and relationships between my brother, our parents, and myself. This film will function as a case study to facilitate a reflective exploration and practice-informed analysis of some of the theoretical frameworks relevant to animated documentary discourse. Placing emphasis on Bill Nichols’ modes of documentary, I trace the influences, interactions, and specific application that this theoretical topology has had on Music & Clowns. Expanding upon Nichols’ framework by way of visual metaphors, I develop increasingly sophisticated models of the interactions between practice and theory, maintaining Nichols’ topology to integrate live-action and animated documentary traditions.Key Words: Bill Nichols, documentary modes, animated documentary, theory, practice &nbsp

    3D Seismic reflection evidence for lower crustal intrusions beneath the Faroe–Shetland Basin, NE Atlantic Margin

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    Lower crustal intrusion is considered to be a common process along volcanic or magma-rich passive margins, including the NE Atlantic Margin, where it is thought to have occurred during phases of Paleogene magmatism, both prior to and during continental break-up between NW Europe and Greenland. Evidence of Paleogene magmatism is prevalent throughout the sub-basins of the Faroe–Shetland Basin as extensive lava flows and pervasive suites of igneous intrusions. However, in contrast with other areas located along the NE Atlantic Margin, no lower crustal reflectivity indicative of lower crustal intrusion has been documented beneath the Faroe–Shetland Basin. The nearest documentation of lower crustal reflectivity and interpretation of lower crustal intrusion to the Faroe–Shetland Basin is NW of the Fugloy Ridge, beneath the Norwegian Basin of the Faroese sector. Despite this, the addition of magma within the lower crust and/or at the Mohorovičić discontinuity is thought to have played a part in Paleogene uplift and the subsequent deposition of Paleocene–Eocene sequences. Advances in sub-basalt seismic acquisition and processing have made significant improvements in facilitating the imaging of deep crustal structures along the NE Atlantic Margin. This study used broadband 3D seismic reflection data to map a series of deep (c. 14–20 km depth) high-amplitude reflections that may represent igneous intrusions within the lower crust beneath the central-northern Corona Ridge. We estimate that the cumulative thicknesses of the reflections may be >5 km in places, which is consistent with published values of magmatic underplating within the region based on geochemical and petrological data. We also estimate that the total volume of lower crustal high-amplitude reflections within the 3D dataset may be >2000 km3. 2D gravity modelling of a seismic line located along the central-northern Corona Ridge supports the interpretation of lower crustal intrusions beneath this area. This study provides evidence of a potential mechanism for Paleogene uplift within the region. If uplift occurred as a result of lower crustal intrusions emplaced within the crust during the Paleogene, then we estimate that c. 300 m of uplift may have been generated within the Corona Ridge area

    Impacts of Social Distancing Policies on Mobility and COVID-19 Case Growth in the US

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    Social distancing remains an important strategy to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. However, the impacts of specific state-level policies on mobility and subsequent COVID-19 case trajectories have not been completely quantified. Using anonymized and aggregated mobility data from opted-in Google users, we found that state-level emergency declarations resulted in a 9.9% reduction in time spent away from places of residence. Implementation of one or more social distancing policies resulted in an additional 24.5% reduction in mobility the following week, and subsequent shelter-in-place mandates yielded an additional 29.0% reduction. Decreases in mobility were associated with substantial reductions in case growth 2 to 4 weeks later. For example, a 10% reduction in mobility was associated with a 17.5% reduction in case growth 2 weeks later. Given the continued reliance on social distancing policies to limit the spread of COVID-19, these results may be helpful to public health officials trying to balance infection control with the economic and social consequences of these policies.Comment: Co-first Authors: GAW, SV, VE, and AF contributed equally. Corresponding Author: Dr. Evgeniy Gabrilovich, [email protected] 32 pages (including supplemental material), 4 figures in the main text, additional figures in the supplemental materia

    Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea and Stunting Among Children Younger Than 5 Years: Findings From the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study.

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    BACKGROUND: Stunting affects >20% of children <5 years old worldwide and disproportionately impacts underserved communities. The Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study examined the association between an episode of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and the risk of subsequent stunting in children <5 years living in 3 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In this prospective, matched, case-control study among children <5 years, data were collected over 36 months from 2 groups. "Children with MSD" visited a health center within 7 days of illness onset experiencing ≥3 loose stools/day plus sunken eyes, poor skin turgor, dysentery, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization. "Children without MSD" were enrolled from the community within 14 days of the index MSD child; they were diarrhea-free during the previous 7 days and were matched to the index case by age, sex, and residence. Using generalized linear mixed-effects models, we estimated the effect of an MSD episode on odds of being stunted, defined as height-for-age z-scores <-2, at a follow-up visit 2-3 months post-enrollment. RESULTS: The proportion of stunting at enrollment was similar when 4603 children with MSD and 5976 children without MSD were compared (21.8% vs 21.3%; P = .504). Among children not stunted at enrollment, those with MSD had 30% higher odds of being stunted at follow-up than children without MSD after controlling for age, sex, study site, and socioeconomic status (adjusted OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.62: P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: Children <5 years in sub-Saharan Africa without stunting experienced an increased likelihood of stunting during 2-3 months following an episode of MSD. Strategies for control of early childhood diarrhea should be integrated into programs intended to reduce childhood stunting

    Shigella in Africa: New Insights From the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study.

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    BACKGROUND: We evaluated the burden of Shigella spp from children aged 0-59 months with medically attended moderate-to-severe diarrhea and matched controls at sites in Mali, The Gambia, and Kenya participating in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) study from 2015 to 2018. METHODS: Shigella spp were identified using coprocultures and serotyping in addition to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Episode-specific attributable fractions (AFe) for Shigella were calculated using Shigella DNA quantity; cases with AFe ≥0.5 were considered to have shigellosis. RESULTS: The prevalence of Shigella was determined to be 359 of 4840 (7.4%) cases and 83 of 6213 (1.3%) controls by culture, and 1641 of 4836 (33.9%) cases and 1084 of 4846 (22.4%) controls by qPCR (cycle threshold <35); shigellosis was higher in The Gambia (30.8%) than in Mali (9.3%) and Kenya (18.7%). Bloody diarrhea attributed to Shigella was more common in 24- to 59-month-old children (50.1%) than 0- to 11-month-old infants (39.5%). The Shigella flexneri serogroup predominated among cases (67.6% of isolates), followed by Shigella sonnei (18.2%), Shigella boydii (11.8%), and Shigella dysenteriae (2.3%). The most frequent S. flexneri serotypes were 2a (40.6%), 1b (18.8%), 6 (17.5%), 3a (9.0%), and 4a (5.1%). Drug-specific resistance among 353 (98.3%) Shigella cases with AMR data was as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94.9%), ampicillin (48.4%), nalidixic acid (1.7%), ceftriaxone (0.3%), azithromycin (0.3%), and ciprofloxacin (0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of shigellosis continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Strains are highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics while remaining susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin

    Prevalence of Salmonella in Stool During the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study, 2015-2018.

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    BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, with limited data on NTS serovars and antimicrobial resistance in Africa. METHODS: We determined the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and frequency of antimicrobial resistance among serovars identified in stools of 0-59 month-old children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and controls enrolled in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya in 2015-2018, and compared with data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS; 2007-2010) and the GEMS-1A study (2011). Salmonella spp. was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and culture-based methods. Identification of serovars was determined by microbiological methods. RESULTS: By qPCR, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. among MSD cases was 4.0%, 1.6%, and 1.9% and among controls was 4.6%, 2.4%, and 1.6% in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya, respectively, during VIDA. We observed year-to-year variation in serovar distribution and variation between sites. In Kenya, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium decreased (78.1% to 23.1%; P < .001) among cases and controls from 2007 to 2018, whereas serogroup O:8 increased (8.7% to 38.5%; P = .04). In The Gambia, serogroup O:7 decreased from 2007 to 2018 (36.3% to 0%; P = .001) but S. enterica serovar Enteritidis increased during VIDA (2015 to 2018; 5.9% to 50%; P = .002). Only 4 Salmonella spp. were isolated in Mali during all 3 studies. Multidrug resistance was 33.9% in Kenya and 0.8% in The Gambia across all 3 studies. Ceftriaxone resistance was only observed in Kenya (2.3%); NTS isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin at all sites. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding variability in serovar distribution will be important for the future deployment of vaccines against salmonellosis in Africa

    Antibiotic-Prescribing Practices for Management of Childhood Diarrhea in 3 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Findings From the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study, 2015-2018.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite antibiotic prescription being recommended for dysentery and suspected cholera only, diarrhea still triggers unwarranted antibiotic prescription. We evaluated antibiotic-prescribing practices and their predictors among children aged 2-59 months in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study performed in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya. METHODS: VIDA was a prospective case-control study (May 2015-July 2018) among children presenting for care with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD). We defined inappropriate antibiotic use as prescription or use of antibiotics when not indicated by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with antibiotic prescription for MSD cases who had no indication for an antibiotic, at each site. RESULTS: VIDA enrolled 4840 cases. Among 1757 (36.3%) who had no apparent indication for antibiotic treatment, 1358 (77.3%) were prescribed antibiotics. In The Gambia, children who presented with a cough (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.21-3.48) were more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic. In Mali, those who presented with dry mouth (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.02-9.73) were more likely to be prescribed antibiotics. In Kenya, those who presented with a cough (aOR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.01-4.70), decreased skin turgor (aOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.02-4.16), and were very thirsty (aOR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.78-9.68) were more likely to be prescribed antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescription was associated with signs and symptoms inconsistent with WHO guidelines, suggesting the need for antibiotic stewardship and clinician awareness of diarrhea case-management recommendations in these settings

    Epidemiology of Enteroaggregative, Enteropathogenic, and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Among Children Aged <5 Years in 3 Countries in Africa, 2015-2018: Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study.

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    BACKGROUND: To address knowledge gaps regarding diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in Africa, we assessed the clinical and epidemiological features of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) positive children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in Mali, The Gambia, and Kenya. METHODS: Between May 2015 and July 2018, children aged 0-59 months with medically attended MSD and matched controls without diarrhea were enrolled. Stools were tested conventionally using culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and by quantitative PCR (qPCR). We assessed DEC detection by site, age, clinical characteristics, and enteric coinfection. RESULTS: Among 4840 children with MSD and 6213 matched controls enrolled, 4836 cases and 1 control per case were tested using qPCR. Of the DEC detected with TAC, 61.1% were EAEC, 25.3% atypical EPEC (aEPEC), 22.4% typical EPEC (tEPEC), and 7.2% STEC. Detection was higher in controls than in MSD cases for EAEC (63.9% vs 58.3%, P < .01), aEPEC (27.3% vs 23.3%, P < .01), and STEC (9.3% vs 5.1%, P < .01). EAEC and tEPEC were more frequent in children aged <23 months, aEPEC was similar across age strata, and STEC increased with age. No association between nutritional status at follow-up and DEC pathotypes was found. DEC coinfection with Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli was more common among cases (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: No significant association was detected between EAEC, tEPEC, aEPEC, or STEC and MSD using either conventional assay or TAC. Genomic analysis may provide a better definition of the virulence factors associated with diarrheal disease

    Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimer's disease

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    We sought to identify new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease through a staged association study (GERAD+) and by testing suggestive loci reported by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC) in a companion paper. We undertook a combined analysis of four genome-wide association datasets (stage 1) and identified ten newly associated variants with P ≤ 1 × 10−5. We tested these variants for association in an independent sample (stage 2). Three SNPs at two loci replicated and showed evidence for association in a further sample (stage 3). Meta-analyses of all data provided compelling evidence that ABCA7 (rs3764650, meta P = 4.5 × 10−17; including ADGC data, meta P = 5.0 × 10−21) and the MS4A gene cluster (rs610932, meta P = 1.8 × 10−14; including ADGC data, meta P = 1.2 × 10−16) are new Alzheimer's disease susceptibility loci. We also found independent evidence for association for three loci reported by the ADGC, which, when combined, showed genome-wide significance: CD2AP (GERAD+, P = 8.0 × 10−4; including ADGC data, meta P = 8.6 × 10−9), CD33 (GERAD+, P = 2.2 × 10−4; including ADGC data, meta P = 1.6 × 10−9) and EPHA1 (GERAD+, P = 3.4 × 10−4; including ADGC data, meta P = 6.0 × 10−10)

    Abstracts from the NIHR INVOLVE Conference 2017

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