71 research outputs found

    Dirac Magnetic Monopole Production from Photon Fusion in Proton Collisions

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    We calculate the lowest order cross--section for Dirac magnetic monopole production from photon fusion in p p-bar collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, p p collisions at sqrt{s}=14 TeV, and we compare photon fusion with Drell--Yan (DY) production. We find the total photon fusion cross--section is comparable with DY at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV and dominates DY by a factor ~50 at sqrt{s}=14 TeV. We conclude that both the photon fusion and DY processes allow for a monopole mass limit m>370 GeV based upon the null results of the recent monopole search at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We also conclude that photon fusion is the leading production mechanism to be considered for direct monopole searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, minor correction, one reference adde

    Signature Studies of Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles

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    This talk explores the possibility that the Universe may be populated with relic magnetic monopoles. Observations of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, lead to the conclusion that monopoles of mass < 10^{14} GeV are accelerated in these fields to relativistic velocities. The relativistic monopole signatures and features we derive are (i) the protracted shower development, (ii) the Cherenkov signals, (iii) the tomography of the Earth with monopoles, and (iv) a model for monopole airshowers above the GZK cutoff.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, talk given at the First International Workshop on Radio Detection of High--Energy Particles, November 16 - 18, 2000, UCL

    High-Energy Cosmic Rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts

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    A model is proposed for the origin of cosmic rays (CRs) from ~10^14 eV to the highest energies, >10^20 eV. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are assumed to inject CR protons and ions into the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies--including the Milky Way--with a power law spectrum extending to a maximum energy ~10^20 eV. The CR spectrum near the knee is fit with CRs trapped in the Galactic halo that were accelerated and injected by an earlier Galactic GRB. These CRs diffuse in the disk and halo of the Galaxy due to gyroresonant pitch-angle scattering with MHD turbulence in the Galaxy's magnetic field. The preliminary (2001) KASCADE data through the knee of the CR spectrum are fit by a model with energy-dependent propagation of CR ions from a single Galactic GRB. Ultra-high energy CRs (UHECRs), with energies above the ankle are assumed to propagate rectilinearly with their spectrum modified by photo-pion, photo-pair, and expansion losses. We fit the measured UHECR spectrum assuming comoving luminosity densities of GRB sources consitent with possible star formation rate histories of the universe. For power-law CR proton injection p>2 this model implies that the nonthermal content in the GRB blast waves is hadronically dominated by a factor ~60-200. Calculations show that 100 TeV-100 PeV neutrinos could be detected several times per year from all GRBs in kilometer-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube, for GRB blast-wave Doppler factors <~200. GLAST measurements of gamma-ray components and cutoffs will constrain the product of nonthermal baryon loading and radiative efficiency, limit the Doppler factor, and test this senario.Comment: 43 pages, 21 figures, to appear in Astropart. Phy

    Solar Wakes of Dark Matter Flows

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    We analyze the effect of the Sun's gravitational field on a flow of cold dark matter (CDM) through the solar system in the limit where the velocity dispersion of the flow vanishes. The exact density and velocity distributions are derived in the case where the Sun is a point mass. The results are extended to the more realistic case where the Sun has a finite size spherically symmetric mass distribution. We find that regions of infinite density, called caustics, appear. One such region is a line caustic on the axis of symmetry, downstream from the Sun, where the flow trajectories cross. Another is a cone-shaped caustic surface near the trajectories of maximum scattering angle. The trajectories forming the conical caustic pass through the Sun's interior and probe the solar mass distribution, raising the possibility that the solar mass distribution may some day be measured by a dark matter detector on Earth. We generalize our results to the case of flows with continuous velocity distributions, such as that predicted by the isothermal model of the Milky Way halo.Comment: 30 pages, 8 figure

    Neurogenesis Drives Stimulus Decorrelation in a Model of the Olfactory Bulb

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    The reshaping and decorrelation of similar activity patterns by neuronal networks can enhance their discriminability, storage, and retrieval. How can such networks learn to decorrelate new complex patterns, as they arise in the olfactory system? Using a computational network model for the dominant neural populations of the olfactory bulb we show that fundamental aspects of the adult neurogenesis observed in the olfactory bulb -- the persistent addition of new inhibitory granule cells to the network, their activity-dependent survival, and the reciprocal character of their synapses with the principal mitral cells -- are sufficient to restructure the network and to alter its encoding of odor stimuli adaptively so as to reduce the correlations between the bulbar representations of similar stimuli. The decorrelation is quite robust with respect to various types of perturbations of the reciprocity. The model parsimoniously captures the experimentally observed role of neurogenesis in perceptual learning and the enhanced response of young granule cells to novel stimuli. Moreover, it makes specific predictions for the type of odor enrichment that should be effective in enhancing the ability of animals to discriminate similar odor mixtures

    Signatures for a Cosmic Flux of Magnetic Monopoles

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    Any early universe phase transition occurring after inflation has the potential to populate the universe with relic magnetic monopoles. Observations of galactic magnetic fields, as well as observations matched with models for extragalactic magnetic fields, lead to the conclusion that monopoles of mass \lsim 10^{15} GeV are accelerated in these fields to relativistic velocities. We explore the possible signatures of a cosmic flux of relativistic monopoles impinging on the earth. The electromagnetically-induced signatures of monopoles are reliable. The hadronically-induced signatures are highly model-dependent. Among our findings are (i) the electromagnetic energy losses of monopoles continuously initiate a protracted shower of small intensity; (ii) monopoles may traverse the earth's diameter, making them a probe of the earth's interior structure; (iii) in addition to the direct monopole Cherenkov signal presently employed, a very attractive search strategy for monopoles is detection of their radio-Cherenkov signal produced by the coherent charge-excess in the e+−e−e^+-e^- shower - in fact, Cherenkov-detectors have the potential to discover a monopole flux (or limit it) several orders of magnitude below the theoretical Parker limit of 10−15/cm210^{-15}/\rm{cm}^2/s/sr; (iv) it is conceivable (but not compelling) that bound states of colored monopoles may be the primary particles initiating the air showers observed above the GZK cutoff.Comment: 33 pages, 5 figures, revtex, to appear in Astro. Part. Phy

    Effect of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Treatment on Early Trajectories of Virologic and Immunologic Biomarkers in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19

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    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) failed to show clear benefit for hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Dynamics of virologic and immunologic biomarkers remain poorly understood. METHODS: Participants enrolled in the Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 trials were randomized to nmAb versus placebo. Longitudinal differences between treatment and placebo groups in levels of plasma nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag), anti-nucleocapsid antibody, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and D-dimer at enrollment, day 1, 3, and 5 were estimated using linear mixed models. A 7-point pulmonary ordinal scale assessed at day 5 was compared using proportional odds models. RESULTS: Analysis included 2149 participants enrolled between August 2020 and September 2021. Treatment resulted in 20% lower levels of plasma N-Ag compared with placebo (95% confidence interval, 12%-27%; P \u3c .001), and a steeper rate of decline through the first 5 days (P \u3c .001). The treatment difference did not vary between subgroups, and no difference was observed in trajectories of other biomarkers or the day 5 pulmonary ordinal scale. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that nmAb has an antiviral effect assessed by plasma N-Ag among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, with no blunting of the endogenous anti-nucleocapsid antibody response. No effect on systemic inflammation or day 5 clinical status was observed. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04501978

    GUT Cosmic Magnetic Fields in a Warm Inflationary Universe

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    Sources of magnetic fields from grand unified theories are studied in the warm inflation regime. A ferromagnetic Savvidy vacuum scenario is presented that yields observationally interesting large scale magnetic fields. As an intermediate step, a general analysis is made of defect production at the onset of warm inflation and monopole constraints are obtained. Many features of this Savvidy vacuum scenario are applicable within a supercooled inflation regime and these points are discussed.Comment: 15 pages, Latex, In press Physical Review

    Hsp60 chaperonopathies and chaperonotherapy: targets and agents.

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