6,021 research outputs found

    Stability of metal-rich very massive stars

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    We revisit the stability of very massive nonrotating main-sequence stars at solar metallicity, with the goal of understanding whether radial pulsations set a physical upper limit to stellar mass. Models of up to 938 solar masses are constructed with the Mesa code, and their linear stability in the fundamental mode, assumed to be the most dangerous, is analysed with a fully nonadiabatic method. Models above 100 MSun have extended tenuous atmospheres ("shelves") that affect the stability of the fundamental. Even when positive, this growth rate is small, in agreement with previous results. We argue that small growth rates lead to saturation at small amplitudes that are not dangerous to the star. A mechanism for saturation is demonstrated involving nonlinear parametric coupling to short-wavelength g modes and the damping of the latter by radiative diffusion. The shelves are subject to much more rapidly growing strange modes. This also agrees with previous results but is extended here to higher masses. The strange modes probably saturate via shocks rather than mode coupling but have very small amplitudes in the core, where almost all of the stellar mass resides. Although our stellar models are hydrostatic, the structure of their outer parts suggests that optically thick winds, driven by some combination of radiation pressure, transsonic convection, and strange modes, are more likely than pulsation in the fundamental mode to limit the main-sequence lifetime.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures, 1 appendix; this version to be published in MNRA

    Octave-tunable miniature RF resonators

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    The development and testing of a miniaturized, high-Q, broadly tunable resonator is described. An exemplary device, with a center frequency that is continuously tunable from 1.2 to 2.6 GHz, was tested in detail. Experimental results demonstrated a resonator Q of up to 380, and typical insertion loss of -1.9 dB for a 25 MHz 3-dB bandwidth. These resonators have been used to stabilize a broadly-tunable oscillator with phase noise of -132 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset, with a center frequency tunable from 1.2-2.6 GHz, and a tuning speed of 1 GHz/ms

    Principles for increased resilience in critical networked infrastructures

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    We propose a framework for deploying stronger, intelligent resilience mechanisms in mission-critical ATM networks over and above that offered by physical n-fold redundancy. We compare the challenges facing power and data network resilience and discuss disruptive threats to real-world operations. Using recorded live data from an ATM data network we argue our proposed architecture with deployable, distributed on-demand anomaly detection and monitoring modules provides enhanced fail-secure versus current fail-safe resilience

    Stress Fractures of the Elbow in the Throwing Athlete: A Systematic Review.

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    Background: Stress fractures of the elbow are rare in throwing athletes and present a challenge from both a management and rehabilitation perspective. Although the incidence of stress fractures of the elbow is increasing, there is a lack of data in the literature focused on throwers. Purpose: To evaluate studies regarding the management and outcomes of stress fractures of the elbow in throwing athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching the Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify studies reporting on the management and outcomes of stress fractures in overhead-throwing athletes. Management data included nonoperative and operative modalities, and outcome data included return to play, encompassing the timing and level of activity. Studies were excluded if the stress fracture of the elbow was not a result of a sport injury attributed to throwing or if the study failed to report whether an athlete returned to play. Results: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. There were 52 patients in total (50 male, 2 female) with a mean age of 19.7 years (range, 13-29.1 years). The olecranon was the most common location of the stress fracture (51 patients; 98.1%), followed by the distal humerus (1 patient; 1.9%). The majority of patients (n = 40; 76.9%) were treated operatively. Of the 40 patients who were treated surgically, 14 (35.0%) underwent a period of conservative treatment preoperatively that ultimately failed because of persistent nonunion or continued elbow pain. A total of 50 patients (96.2%) returned to sport either at or above their preinjury level. Of the 2 patients (3.8%) who did not return to sport, 1 did not return because of continued elbow pain postoperatively, and the other was lost to follow-up. Complications occurred in 9 patients (17.3%), all of whom were treated surgically. Conclusion: On the basis of this systematic review, the majority of elbow stress fractures were treated operatively and approximately one-third after a period of failed nonoperative management. The return-to-sport rate was high. Further, higher level studies are needed to optimize management and return-to-sport rates in this population