29 research outputs found

### C32, A Young Star Cluster in IC 1613

The Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has remained an enigma for many
years because of its apparent lack of star clusters. We report the successful
search for clusters among several of the candidate objects identified many
years ago on photographic plates. We have used a single HST WFPC2 pointing and
a series of images obtained with the WIYN telescope under exceptional seeing
conditions, examining a total of 23 of the previously published candidates. All
but six of these objects were found to be either asterisms or background
galaxies. Five of the six remaining candidates possibly are small, sparse
clusters and the sixth, C32, is an obvious cluster. It is a compact, young
object, with an age of less than 10 million years and a total absolute
magnitude of M_V = -5.78+/-0.16 within a radius of 13 pc.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, to be published in the May 2000 issue of the PAS

### Lumpy Structures in Self-Gravitating Disks

Following Toomre & Kalnajs (1991), local models of slightly dissipative
self-gravitating disks show how inhomogeneous structures can be maintained over
several galaxy rotations. Their basic physical ingredients are self-gravity,
dissipation and differential rotation. In order to explore the structures
resulting from these processes on the kpc scale, local simulation of
self-gravitating disks are performed in this paper in 2D as well as in 3D. The
third dimension becomes a priori important as soon as matter clumping causes a
tight coupling of the 3D equations of motion. The physically simple and general
framework of the model permits to make conclusions beyond the here considered
scales. A time dependent affine coordinate system is used, allowing to
calculate the gravitational forces via a particle-mesh FFT-method, increasing
the performance with respect to previous direct force calculations. Persistent
patterns, formed by transient structures, whose intensity and morphological
characteristic depend on the dissipation rate are obtained and described. Some
of our simulations reveal first signs of mass-size and velocity dispersion-size
power-law relations, but a clear scale invariant behavior will require more
powerful computer techniques.Comment: 28 pages, 32 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A. Full
resolution paper available at http://obswww.unige.ch/Preprints/dyn_art.htm

### Tracing spiral density waves in M81

We use SPITZER IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron near infrared data from the Spitzer
Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), optical B, V and I and 2MASS Ks band
data to produce mass surface density maps of M81. The IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron
data, whilst dominated by emission from old stellar populations, is corrected
for small-scale contamination by young stars and PAH emission. The I band data
are used to produce a mass surface density map by a B-V colour-correction,
following the method of Bell and de Jong. We fit a bulge and exponential disc
to each mass map, and subtract these components to reveal the non-axisymmetric
mass surface density. From the residual mass maps we are able to extract the
amplitude and phase of the density wave, using azimuthal profiles. The response
of the gas is observed via dust emission in the 8micron IRAC band, allowing a
comparison between the phase of the stellar density wave and gas shock. The
relationship between this angular offset and radius suggests that the spiral
structure is reasonably long lived and allows the position of corotation to be
determined.Comment: 15 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

### Gas distribution, kinematics and star formation in faint dwarf galaxies

We compare the gas distribution, kinematics and the current star formation in
a sample of 10 very faint (-13.37 < M_B < -9.55) dwarf galaxies. For 5 of these
galaxies we present fresh, high sensitivity, GMRT HI 21cm observations. For all
our galaxies we construct maps of the HI column density at a constant linear
resolution of ~300 pc; this forms an excellent data set to check for the
presence of a threshold column density for star formation. We find that while
current star formation (as traced by Halpha emission) is confined to regions
with relatively large (N_HI > (0.4 -1.7) X 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}) HI column
density, the morphology of the Halpha emission is in general not correlated
with that of the high HI column density gas. Thus, while high column density
gas may be necessary for star formation, in this sample at least, it is not
sufficient to ensure that star formation does in fact occur. We examine the
line profiles of the HI emission, but do not find a simple relation between
regions with complex line profiles and those with on-going star formation.
Finally, we examine the very fine scale (~20-100 pc) distribution of the HI
gas, and find that at these scales the emission exhibits a variety of shell
like, clumpy and filamentary features. The Halpha emission is sometimes
associated with high density HI clumps, sometimes the Halpha emission lies
inside a high density shell, and sometimes there is no correspondence between
the Halpha emission and the HI clumps. In summary, the interplay between star
formation and gas density in these galaxy does not seem to show the simple
large scale patterns observed in brighter galaxies (abridged).Comment: 15 pages, 6 tables, 13 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

### Lorentz Covariant Theory of Light Propagation in Gravitational Fields of Arbitrary-Moving Bodies

The Lorentz covariant theory of propagation of light in the (weak)
gravitational fields of N-body systems consisting of arbitrarily moving
point-like bodies with constant masses is constructed. The theory is based on
the Lienard-Wiechert presentation of the metric tensor. A new approach for
integrating the equations of motion of light particles depending on the
retarded time argument is applied. In an approximation which is linear with
respect to the universal gravitational constant, G, the equations of light
propagation are integrated by quadratures and, moreover, an expression for the
tangent vector to the perturbed trajectory of light ray is found in terms of
instanteneous functions of the retarded time. General expressions for the
relativistic time delay, the angle of light deflection, and gravitational red
shift are derived. They generalize previously known results for the case of
static or uniformly moving bodies. The most important applications of the
theory are given. They include a discussion of the velocity dependent terms in
the gravitational lens equation, the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsars, and
a precise theoretical formulation of the general relativistic algorithm of data
processing of radio and optical astrometric measurements in the non-stationary
gravitational field of the solar system. Finally, proposals for future
theoretical work being important for astrophysical applications are formulated.Comment: 77 pages, 7 figures, list of references is updated, to be published
in Phys. Rev. D6

### High Magnetic Shear Gain in a Liquid Sodium Stable Couette Flow Experiment; A Prelude to an alpha-Omega Dynamo

The $\Omega$-phase of the liquid sodium $\alpha$-$\Omega$ dynamo experiment
at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production
of a high toroidal field, $B_{\phi} \simeq 8\times B_r$ from the radial
component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, $B_r$. This enhanced toroidal
field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid
sodium at $Rm \simeq 120$. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow
is caused by Ekman flow where $(\delta v/v)^2 \sim 10^{-3}$. This high
$\Omega$-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller $\Omega$-gain in
higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the
ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within
semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays only a smaller
diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, submitted PRL revised version: add one author,
minor typo'

### Constraining corotation from shocks in tightly-wound spiral galaxies

We present a new method for estimating the corotation radius in tightly wound
spiral galaxies, through analysis of the radial variation of the offset between
arms traced by the potential (P-arms) and those traced by dust (D-arms). We
have verified the predictions of semi-analytical theory through hydrodynamical
simulations and have examined the uniqueness of the galactic parameters that
can be deduced by this method. We find that if the range of angular offsets
measured at different radii in a galaxy is greater than around pi/4, it is
possible to locate the radius of corotation to within ~ 25%. We argue that the
relative location of the P- and D-arms provides more robust constraints on the
galactic parameters than can be inferred from regions of enhanced star
formation (SF-arms), since interpretation of the latter involves uncertainties
due to reddening and the assumed star formation law. We thus stress the
importance of K-band studies of spiral galaxies.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 15 pages, 23 figure

### Spin and quadrupole contributions to the motion of astrophysical binaries

Compact objects in general relativity approximately move along geodesics of
spacetime. It is shown that the corrections to geodesic motion due to spin
(dipole), quadrupole, and higher multipoles can be modeled by an extension of
the point mass action. The quadrupole contributions are discussed in detail for
astrophysical objects like neutron stars or black holes. Implications for
binaries are analyzed for a small mass ratio situation. There quadrupole
effects can encode information about the internal structure of the compact
object, e.g., in principle they allow a distinction between black holes and
neutron stars, and also different equations of state for the latter.
Furthermore, a connection between the relativistic oscillation modes of the
object and a dynamical quadrupole evolution is established.Comment: 43 pages. Proceedings of the 524. WE-Heraeus-Seminar "Equations of
Motion in Relativistic Gravity". v2: fixed reference. v3: corrected typos in
eqs. (1), (57), (85