10 research outputs found

    Tverrspråklig innflytelse fra L1 i tilegnelsen av argumentplassering i L2 norsk og svensk

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    Source at <a href=http://ojs.novus.no/index.php/NLT/article/view/1966 >http://ojs.novus.no/index.php/NLT/article/view/1966Plasseringen av subjekt og objekt i norsk og svensk avhenger av mange ulike faktorer. Det har tidligere blitt vist at andrespr√•kstalere i grammatikalitetsvurderinger ikke er sensitive til finkornete distinksjoner som er avgj√łrende for argumentplassering i norsk (Anderssen mfl. 2018). I denne artikkelen presenterer vi resultat fra tre eksperiment som tester plassering av subjekt og objekt hos andrespr√•ksinnl√¶rere av norsk og svensk, med hensyn til b√•de forst√•else og produksjon. V√•rt m√•l er √• teste hvor mye argumentplasseringen i f√łrstespr√•ket (L1) p√•virker plasseringsm√łnsteret i andrespr√•ket (L2). Resultatene v√•re viser at L1 spiller en stor rolle: L2-innl√¶rerne forventer at argumentplassering blir styrt av samme faktorer i andre- som i f√łrstespr√•ket. Videre finner vi, i likhet med Anderssen mfl. (2018), at plassering av nominalfrasesubjekt er s√¶rdeles vanskelig for L2-talerne. Til slutt viser vi at m√łnster fra grammatikalitetsvurderinger og L2-produksjon stort sett stemmer overens

    Verb placement in embedded sentences in Faroese

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    In this article, I present data from the Nordic Word order Database (NWD) on word order in Faroese embedded clauses. I discuss the methods used in the data elicitation, data analysis, and present a first overview of the patterns in the dataset. The NWD contains a total of 4,752 embedded clauses elicited from 33 native Faroese speakers, focussing on embedded wh-questions, and the placement of the finite verb with respect to adverbs in different types of complements. The results from the Faroese fieldwork largely confirm the word order patterns discussed in the literature. There is very little variation in the word order of embeddded wh-questions in the NWD-data. Verb &gt; Adverb order is most common in declarative bridge-verb complements, whereas non-bridge, and wh-complements disfavour this order

    New methodologies in the Nordic Syntax Database: word order variation in Norwegian wh-questions

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    Across Norwegian dialects, wh-questions show variation concerning word order possibilities, with many dialects allowing non-V2 word order. The acceptance of this order differs across dialects and depends on the complexity and function of the wh-element. This study examines data from 409 informants across 105 sites in the Nordic Syntax Database (NSD). Throughout the study, new methodologies are used in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations of the NSD-map building tool as well as present new insights from a more detailed assessment of the acceptability judgements. Analysis of the frequency of these acceptability judgements on four test items showed that four grammars could be distinguished: those that allow either only V2 word order; non-V2 word order across all wh-questions; non-V2 in all but long nonsubject wh-questions; or non-V2 only with short whs. An apparent-time study of the data supports a diachronic connection between some but not all of the varieties

    Variable verb second in Norwegian main and embedded clauses

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    Norwegian has verb second (V2) word order in main but not embedded clauses. Although as a first approximation V2 is a phenomenon characteristic of root clauses, it has long been known that it occurs also in a restricted set of embedded clauses in Norwegian, as in many, if not all, of the other North Germanic languages. Many Norwegian dialects in addition allow deviations from the standard V2 word order in main clause interrogatives. Hence, the asymmetric verb second pattern seems to break down in different ways in Norwegian. This study presents new data from a large-scale elicited production experiment targeting the placement of the finite verb in both main and embedded clauses in Norwegian. The distribution of deviations from the standard word order pattern, and the constraints on the environments where these are produced, will be of primary concern. While classic accounts of verb second analyse it as involving a macro-parameter, I will argue based on the collected production data that it is necessarily decomposed in several ways, with variation in both main and embedded clauses guided by clause type, assertion, and specific lexical items

    The distribution of main and embedded structures: V2 and non-V2 orders in North Germanic

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    North Germanic has Verb Second (V2) word order in main but not embedded clauses. Although as a first approximation V2 is a phenomenon characteristic of root clauses, it has long been known that it occurs also in a restricted set of embedded clauses in many, if not all, of the North Germanic languages. Moreover, a wide variety of Norwegian dialects allow deviations from the standard V2 word order in main clause interrogatives. The asymmetric Verb Second pattern thus seemingly breaks down in different ways. This thesis presents new data from large-scale elicited production experiments targeting the placement of the finite verb in both main and embedded clauses. The distribution of deviations from the standard word order pattern, and the constraints on the environments where these are produced are of primary concern. In addition, results from a Norwegian production experiment where speech was elicited in two ways -- using standardised written language and using spoken dialect as the elicitation source, show that most speakers directly activate morphophonological forms from the local dialect when encountering standardised orthographic forms. This suggests that speakers do not treat the written and spoken language as different grammars. Furthermore, we find syntactic variation which does not track the morphophonological variation, suggesting that a code/register-switching alone cannot explain syntactic optionality. Overall, the results of the various studies within this thesis show that variation in the position of the verb, is found not only between languages, but within languages and within speakers. I therefore conclude that verb placement in North Germanic is not fully grammaticised. As an alternative, this thesis proposes a uniform syntactic structure for main and embedded clauses in North Germanic. In this structure, verb position is non-categorical though correlated with assertion semantics (embedded clauses) and prosody and lexicon (Norwegian main clauses)

    Verb placement variation in Swedish and Danish

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    This article gives a summary of the Swedish and Danish data on verb placement in the Nordic Word order Database (NWD; Lundquist et al. 2019). The data were collected using an elicited production paradigm. I discuss variation in verb placement in Danish in four constructions: in embedded clauses with respect to adverbs (embedded V2), in main clauses with respect to preverbal and sentence-medial adverbs, and in embedded and main clause wh-questions. The Swedish data cover embedded clauses only. The Swedish and Danish results are discussed in direct comparison to the verb placement patterns observed in the other North Germanic languages covered in the NWD

    Tverrspråklig innflytelse fra L1 i tilegnelsen av argumentplassering i L2 norsk og svensk

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    Plasseringen av subjekt og objekt i norsk og svensk avhenger av mange ulike faktorer. Det har tidligere blitt vist at andrespr√•kstalere i grammatikalitetsvurderinger ikke er sensitive til finkornete distinksjoner som er avgj√łrende for argumentplassering i norsk (Anderssen mfl. 2018). I denne artikkelen presenterer vi resultat fra tre eksperiment som tester plassering av subjekt og objekt hos andrespr√•ksinnl√¶rere av norsk og svensk, med hensyn til b√•de forst√•else og produksjon. V√•rt m√•l er √• teste hvor mye argumentplasseringen i f√łrstespr√•ket (L1) p√•virker plasseringsm√łnsteret i andrespr√•ket (L2). Resultatene v√•re viser at L1 spiller en stor rolle: L2-innl√¶rerne forventer at argumentplassering blir styrt av samme faktorer i andre- som i f√łrstespr√•ket. Videre finner vi, i likhet med Anderssen mfl. (2018), at plassering av nominalfrasesubjekt er s√¶rdeles vanskelig for L2-talerne. Til slutt viser vi at m√łnster fra grammatikalitetsvurderinger og L2-produksjon stort sett stemmer overens

    Code-switching alone cannot explain intraspeaker syntactic variability: Evidence from a spoken elicitation experiment

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    We address the question whether speakers activate different grammars when they encounter linguistic input from different registers, here written standardised language and spoken dialect. This question feeds into the larger theoretical and empirical question if variable syntactic patterns should be modelled as switching between different registers/grammars, or as underspecified mappings from form to meaning within one grammar. We analyse 6000 observations from 26 high school students from Troms√ł, comprising more than 20 phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactic variables obtained from two elicited production experiments: one using standardised written language and one using spoken dialect as the elicitation source. The results suggest that most participants directly activate morphophonological forms from the local dialect when encountering standardised orthographic forms, suggesting that they do not treat the written and spoken language as different grammars. Furthermore, the syntactic variation does not track the morphophonological variation, which suggests that code/register-switching alone cannot explain syntactic optionality

    Nordic Word Order Database: Motivations, methods, material and infrastructure

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    In this article, we present the Nordic Word Order Database (NWD), with a focus on the rationale behind it, the methods used in data elicitation, data analysis and the empirical scope of the database. NWD is an online database with a user-friendly search interface, hosted by The Text Laboratory at the University of Oslo, launched in April 2019 (https://tekstlab.uio.no/nwd). It contains elicited production data from speakers of all of the North Germanic languages, including several different dialects. So far, 7 fieldtrips have been conducted, and data from altogether around 250 participants (age 16‚Äď60) have been collected (approx. 55 000 sentences in total). The data elicitation is carried out through a carefully controlled production experiment that targets core syntactic phenomena that are known to show variation within and/or between the North Germanic languages, e.g., subject placement, object placement, particle placement and verb placement. In this article, we present the motivations and research questions behind the database, as well as a description of the experiment, the data collection procedure, and the structure of the databas
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