1,767 research outputs found

    Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

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    Predictive engine simulation models are needed to make rapid progress towards DOE's goals of increasing combustion engine efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions. These engine simulation models require chemical kinetic submodels to allow the prediction of the effect of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions. Chemical kinetic models for conventional and next-generation transportation fuels need to be developed so that engine simulation tools can predict fuel effects. The objectives are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines

    Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality with matter waves

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    The Cauchy-Schwarz (CS) inequality -- one of the most widely used and important inequalities in mathematics -- can be formulated as an upper bound to the strength of correlations between classically fluctuating quantities. Quantum mechanical correlations can, however, exceed classical bounds.Here we realize four-wave mixing of atomic matter waves using colliding Bose-Einstein condensates, and demonstrate the violation of a multimode CS inequality for atom number correlations in opposite zones of the collision halo. The correlated atoms have large spatial separations and therefore open new opportunities for extending fundamental quantum-nonlocality tests to ensembles of massive particles.Comment: Final published version (with minor changes). 5 pages, 3 figures, plus Supplementary Materia

    Describing interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy: A qualitative study in England

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    Background: There is growing evidence base around interruptions and distractions in the community pharmacy setting. There is also evidence to suggest these practices may be associated with dispensing errors. Up to date, qualitative research on this subject is limited. Objective: To explore interruptions and distractions in the community setting; utilising an ethnographic approach to be able to provide a detailed description of the circumstances surrounding such practices. Setting: Community pharmacies in England, July to October 2011. Method: An ethnographic approach was taken. Non participant, unstructured observations were utilised to make records of pharmacists’ every activities. Case studies were formed by combining field notes with detailed information on pharmacists and their respective pharmacy businesses. Content analysis was undertaken both manually and electronically, utilising NVivo 10. Results: Response rate was 12% (n=11). Over fifteen days, a total of 123 hours and 58 minutes of observations were recorded in 11 separate pharmacies of 11 individual pharmacists. The sample was evenly split by gender (female n=6; male n=5) and pharmacy ownership (independent n=5; multiple n=6). Employment statuses included employee pharmacists (n=6), owners (n=4) and a locum (n=1). Average period of registration as a pharmacist was 19 years (range 5-39 years). Average prescriptions busyness of pharmacies ranged from 2,600 – 24,000 items dispensed per month. Two key themes were: “Interruptions and task-switching” and “distractions and multi-tasking.” All observed pharmacists’ work was dominated by interruptions, task-switches, distractions and multi-tasking, often to manage a barrage of conflicting demands. These practices were observed to be part of a deep-rooted culture in the community setting. Directional work maps illustrated the extent and direction of task switching employed by pharmacists. Conclusions: In this study pharmacists’ working practices were permeated by interruptions and multi-tasking. These practices are inefficient and potentially reduce patient safety in terms of dispensing accuracy

    Resistivity image beneath an area of active methane seeps in the west Svalbard continental slope

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    The Arctic continental margin contains large amounts of methane in the form of methane hydrates. The west Svalbard continental slope is an area where active methane seeps have been reported near the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone. The presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) on seismic reflection data in water depths greater than 600 m suggests the presence of free gas beneath gas hydrates in the area. Resistivity obtained from marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data provides a useful complement to seismic methods for detecting shallow hydrate and gas as they are more resistive than surrounding water saturated sediments. We acquired two CSEM lines in the west Svalbard continental slope, extending from the edge of the continental shelf (250 m water depth) to water depths of around 800 m. High resistivities (5–12 Ωm) observed above the BSR support the presence of gas hydrate in water depths greater than 600 m. High resistivities (3–4 Ωm) at 390–600 m water depth also suggest possible hydrate occurrence within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) of the continental slope. In addition, high resistivities (4–8 Ωm) landward of the GHSZ are coincident with high-amplitude reflectors and low velocities reported in seismic data that indicate the likely presence of free gas. Pore space saturation estimates using a connectivity equation suggest 20–50 per cent hydrate within the lower slope sediments and less than 12 per cent within the upper slope sediments. A free gas zone beneath the GHSZ (10–20 per cent gas saturation) is connected to the high free gas saturated (10–45 per cent) area at the edge of the continental shelf, where most of the seeps are observed. This evidence supports the presence of lateral free gas migration beneath the GHSZ towards the continental shelf
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