44 research outputs found

    Uninflected relative verb forms as converbs and verbal rhemes. The two schemes of the emphatic construction as a detached adjectival phrase construction and as a truncated balanced sentence

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    First, it is argued that, in the Second Scheme of the Emphatic Construction, the use of the Uninflected Relative Forms (traditionally “Nominal Verb Forms”) as initial circumstantial clauses is similar to the use of adverbial participles and adverbial relative clauses in other languages. Accordingly, the construction is identified as a detached adjectival verb form construction (here “Detached Relative Form Construction”, DRF-Cx), in which the Uninflected Relative Verb Form serves as a “converb”, i.e., a less inflected, adjectival verb form that is used adverbially. In a second line of thought, it is hypothesized that the Emphatic Construction proper (“First Scheme”) was born from a Verbal Balanced Sentence Construction with two identical Uninflected Relative Forms plus an additional adverbial phrase, in which the second ‘twin’ Uninflected Relative Forms was omitted due to its semantic redundancy. In contrast to earlier accounts, this scenario explains simultaneously a) the construction’s semantic layout, i.e., the sequence ground––focused foreground and the effectively absolute tense interpretation of the Uninflected Relative Form; b) its morphosyntactic layout, i.e., Uninflected Relative Form––adverbial phrase); and c) its paradigmatic fingerprint which is similar to that of Nominal Sentences. Altogether, this analysis takes notably 1) the Adverbial Sentence Construction, 2) the Detached Relative Form Construction (“Second Scheme of the Emphatic Construction”), and 3) the Emphatic Construction proper, alias “Circumstance Focusing Construction” (CF-Cx) as three different, unrelated constructions, –– the latter, i.e. the CF-Cx, however, being related to the Verbal Balanced Sentence, i.e., a Nominal Sentence

    Aspect vs. relative tense, and the typological classification of the Ancient Egyptian sdm.n=f

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    The sound values of the signs Gardiner D1 (Head) and T8 (Dagger)

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    It is argued that the evidence in the Books of the Netherworld attested in the New Kingdom doubtlessly proves that the signs [Gardiner D1, head] and [Gardiner T8, dagger] corresponded to dp /t’(V)p/ and dpj>dpï /t’(V)p(V)(j)/ respectively, both with emphatic dental stop, in Middle and Late Egyptian. Further evidence dating between the 3rd and the 1st millennium BCE supports this hypothesis

    Linguistic dating of the Netherworld Books attested in the New Kingdom. A critical review

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    This contribution first reviews linguistic features that have been put forward as arguments for an Old Kingdom date of particular theological compositions first attested in the New Kingdom: the Netherworld Books (Amduat, Book of Gates, Book of Caverns, Book of the Night, Books of the Earth), the Book of the Day, the Book of Nut, as well as the Litany of the Sun. In this context, the adverbial use of jwt/jwtj, the proclitic use of determiners (pn NP), the attestation of ‘old prospective’ forms (sḏm.w=f, nj sḏm.w=f, sḏmm=f, nj sḏmm=f), the lack of certain periphrastic tempora (jw=f r sḏm, jw=f ḥr sḏm), the proclitic pronoun construction sw sḏm=f, and the nominal sentences with ṯwt (js) and swt (js) are discussed in some detail. The review concludes that it is indeed plausible to date at least some of these compositions as attested in the New Kingdom to the New Kingdom (or to the Second Intermediate Period), testifying to the profound philological and linguistic competence of certain Egyptian literates at that time. Therefore, besides the Urkunden IV and some medical texts, the Netherworld Books can serve as another landmark for the linguistic dating of pieces of literature attested not earlier than in the New Kingdom.Daniel A. Werning. Ancient Egyptian Prepositions for the Expression of Spatial Relations and their Translations. A typological approach

    Ancient Egyptian prepositions for the expression of spatial relations and their translations. A typological approach

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    The article explores the static spatial meaning of basic prepositions in Hieroglyphic Ancient Egyptian, as compared to eight modern target languages. The tertium comparationis is the typological-linguistic tool of the Topological Relations Picture Series. The author identifies as the basic meanings of some Egyptian prepositions: m IN and FROM; r ATTACHED, CLOSE_TO, and TO; ḥr SUPERIOR (i.e. VERT_ON + ABOVE) and AT; and ẖr INFERIOR (i.e. UNDER + BELOW); as well as m ẖnw INSIDE and WITHIN, and IN_THE_MIDDLE; dp (trad. tp) head.LOC, AT_TOP, and AHEAD; ḥr dp ON_TOP and ABOVE. Further, he highlights the case of the conflation of the meanings BEHIND and AROUND in ḥA, as well as the phenomenon of a ‘Paradoxical Figure–Ground Reversal’ as exemplified by Egyptian wrrt m dp (lit. great_crown IN head) ‘the Great Crown on the head’. Finally, the author suggests decomposing the dynamic meanings of prepositions as well as the dynamic meanings of verbs. He supports the analysis that, in contrast to e.g. English, in dynamic contexts, Egyptian prepositions often only encode the static source or goal configuration, but not the path proper

    Roberson, J. A., The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Earth, Atlanta (Georgia) 2012

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    An interpretation of the stemmata of the Books of the Netherworld in the New Kingdom - Tomb decoration and the text additions for Osiris NN

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    A comparison of the textual traditions of the Amduat, the Litany of Re, the Book of Gates, and the Book of Caverns in the New Kingdom brings about reasonable results that can cautiously be interpreted as a realistic picture of the actual copying processes for archival purposes, sarcophagus workshops, and tomb decoration. Major copying activities can be reconstructed in parallel to important changes in the decoration program of the kings’ tombs and sarcophagi. Remarkable bundles of copying activities including text alterations, collation, and the repair of papyri can be proven in connection with the decoration of the tombs of Thutmosis III, Haremhab, Seti I, Merenptah, Rameses IV, and Rameses VI. The additions to and alterations of the text proper which relate aspects of the dead king to the actions described in it can be proven to be secondary for all of the four books discussed

    Aenigmatische Schreibungen in Unterweltsbüchern des Neuen Reiches: gesicherte Entsprechungen und Ersetzungsprinzipien

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    This contribution provides a complete list of ‘cryptographic’/‘enigmatic’ readings of signs in the Amduat and the Book of Caverns (Höhlenbuch, Livre des Quererts) that are confirmed by the attested double writings of alienated/cryptographic spelling on the one hand and accompanying plaintext in standard orthography on the other hand. The precise principles underlying the replacement of a plaintext (string of) sign(s) by another (string of) sign(s) are enumerated, the question of the acrophonic principle(s) being discussed in short. A ‘cryptoalphabet’ commonly used in the Book of Caverns is presented. Additional pieces of linguistic information gained by the interpretation of cryptographic spellings are listed. Evidence is put forward that the word for Khepri has indeed have been a participle with three consonants (ḫpr > ḫpj) different from the noun for scarab (ḫprr) with four consonants. Finally it is suggested that the cryptographic string [goose-goose-goose-hide-locust] attested in the Book of Caverns stands for the notion cryptogram itself

    Der ‚Kopf des Beines‘, der ‚Mund der Arme‘ und die ‚Zähne‘ des Schöpfers. Zu metonymischen und metaphorischen Verwendungen von Körperteil-Lexemen im Hieroglyphisch-Ägyptischen

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    The article surveys and explores the metonymical and metaphorical meanings of the most frequent body part terms in Earlier Egyptian in the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). Among the body parts discussed more prominently are the mouth, the face, the nose, the feet, the back, the hand(s), the heart, and the tongue (excluded are verbalizations of emotions and gestures). An initial section summarizes the theoretical background. In various sections, the topic of “sleeping” and “waking” metonymies/metaphors and their “awakening,” esp. in images, is addressed (3, 4). In accordance with the overarching question of the collective volume, the question discussed how the reference to body parts of gods should be understood. This is discussed on the basis of a prominent part of the Memphite Theology (Denkmal Memphitischer Theologie), which is analyzed and also presented with linguistic word-by-word glossing (DMT 48-59). The article argues for a metaphorical interpretation of this and other verbalizations of the creation of the world in the Pyramid Texts (creation by words, by masturbation, by spitting, by laughing). A concluding section summarizes phenomena that seem to be (rather than common in many languages) specific to Ancient Egyptian

    Diagramm

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    Verwendung des Begriffs 'Diagramm' in verschiedenen Fachdiskurse
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