102 research outputs found

    Prospects of Monetary Integration in Asia: Adopting the Yuan and Other Options

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    This study examines the macroeconomic losses and gains of various types of monetary integration in Asia, including adopting the Chinese yuan as a common currency for 47 Asian economies. Using data from 1979 to 2011, I find that inflation bias and business cycle synchronization with China vary substantially across countries. The estimated losses and gains from the adoption are often positively related, a relationship that appears to have strengthened over time. However, a net gain comparison is feasible for individual countries. In particular, by dividing sample economies into two groups East Asia and Other Asia, the empirical results suggest that Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam are countries that will gain more and lose less from adopting the yuan than the others in my sample, so that they are the most promising candidates. I also investigate gains and losses for these Asian countries of adopting the yen or the U.S. Dollar. I find that the U.S. Dollar is a better choice for Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Iraq, Israel, Mongolia, Pakistan, Philippines, United Arab Emirates, and Armenia than the yuan, while the yen is not considered as a promising common currency because of the Japanese deflation during the recent period. This study also investigates the connection between business-cycle correlation and trade flows among countries. The evidence shows that increasing trade intensity with China has led to a greater synchronization of business cycles between China and 43 Asian economies during 1982-2011. Most Asian economies have grown dramatically closer trade ties with China than with Japan or the U.S. over the period, which resulted in higher cyclical correlation with China. This finding strengthens the net benefits of forming a Yuan Optimum Currency Area in Asia region since the destabilizing costs of joining a currency union diminish when the members are more business-cycle synchronized. The economies that traded most intensively with China over the past decade are Hong Kong, Japan, Laos, Macao, Mongolia, Myanmar, Oman, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam. Lastly, this study addresses the prospects of two forms of multilateral adoptions in Asia by measuring macroeconomic gains and losses of the potential formations for Asia as a whole and South-Eastern Asia as a whole. Again, the results show that more (less) gains often coexist with more (less) losses. Five economies, Brunei, Indonesia, Laos, Vietnam and Timor-Leste are promising candidates of joining South-Eastern Optimum Currency Area

    Accelerated Two-Phase Oxidation in Microdroplets Assisted by Light and Heat without the Use of Phase-Transfer Catalysts

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    Two-phase oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes could be achieved without any phase-transfer catalyst in microdroplets. Herein, we realized reaction acceleration for two-phase oxidation in microdroplets using diluted oxidants under light and thermal irradiation. Lights of short wavelengths were more desirable to reaction acceleration than lights of long wavelengths. However, yields were dramatically improved by moderate heating but reversely decreased by excess heat owing to crystallization. The yields with 5-fold diluted NaOCl solution under light and thermal irradiation were comparable to those with undiluted NaOCl in the absence of light and heat. The dilution of NaOCl not only improved robustness of the sprayer (no salt deposition at the capillary tip) but also met the requirements of green chemistry

    Regioselective Synthesis of Indolo[1,2‑<i>c</i>]quinazolines and 11<i>H</i>‑Indolo[3,2‑<i>c</i>]quinolines via Copper-Catalyzed Cascade Reactions of 2‑(2-Bromoaryl)‑1<i>H</i>‑indoles with Aldehydes and Aqueous Ammonia

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    Highly selective and convenient synthesis of indolo­[1,2-<i>c</i>]­quinazolines and 11<i>H</i>-indolo­[3,2-<i>c</i>]­quinolines through copper-catalyzed one-pot cascade reactions of 2-(2-bromoaryl)-1<i>H</i>-indoles with aldehydes and aqueous ammonia has been achieved. Notably, the regioselectivity was easily controlled by tuning the reaction conditions. Compared with literature methods, the present protocol features easily controlled selectivity, readily available starting materials, good functional group tolerance, and simple operation procedures

    table_4_SOCS3 Suppression Promoted the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1−F4/80−MHCII− Early-Stage Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Accelerated Interleukin-6-Related Tumor Invasion via Affecting Myeloid Differentiation in Breast Cancer.docx

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    <p>Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important trigger for the expansion and recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which are regarded to be major coordinators of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In this study, we constructed IL-6-knockdown breast cancer mice models to explore the molecular events involved in the IL-6-mediated effects on MDSC development. We defined a subset of early-stage MDSCs (e-MDSCs) with the phenotype of CD11b<sup>+</sup>Gr-1<sup>−</sup>F4/80<sup>−</sup>MHCII<sup>−</sup> in IL-6 high-expressing 4T1 mice mammary carcinoma models, which were the precursors of CD11b<sup>+</sup>Gr-1<sup>+</sup> conventional MDSCs. Furthermore, sustained suppression of SOCS3 and aberrant hyperactivation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was exclusively detected in wide-type 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, which promoted the accumulation of e-MDSCs in situ and their immunosuppressive capability in vitro. After blocking the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway with the IL-6 receptor antibody or STAT3 antagonist JSI-124 in tumor-bearing mice, significant shrinkage of primary tumors and decrease in lung metastatic nodules were observed in vivo, accompanied by the dramatic decrease of e-MDSC recruitment and recovery of anti-tumor T cell immunity. Thus, SOCS3 suppression accelerated the IL-6-mediated growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma via affecting myeloid differentiation in breast cancer. Moreover, the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway might be a promising candidate target in developing novel therapeutic strategies to eliminate e-MDSCs and improve breast cancer prognosis.</p

    Frosting Behavior of Superhydrophobic Nanoarrays under Ultralow Temperature

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    Retarding and preventing frost formation at ultralow temperature has an increasing importance due to a wide range of applications of ultralow fluids in aerospace and industrial facilities. Recent efforts for developing antifrosting surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces. Whether the antifrosting performance of the superhydrophobic surface is still effective under ultralow temperature has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we investigated the frosting behavior of fabricated superhydrophobic ZnO nanoarrays under different temperature and different environment. The surface showed excellent performance in anticondensation and antifrosting when the surface temperature was approximately −20 °C. Although the frosting event inevitably occurs on all surfaces when the temperature is decreased from −50 to −150 °C, the frost accumulation on the superhydrophobic surfaces is always less than that on the untreated surfaces. Interestingly, the frost layer detaches from the surface within a short time and keeps the surface dry in the very beginning of the defrosting process. Further, there is no frost formation on the surface at −20 °C during 10 min testing when blowing compressed air and spraying methanol together or spraying methanol individually. It can reduce the height of the frost layer and increases the density when spraying methanol at −150 °C. Furthermore, the frost crystals on the top surface can been blown away due to the low adhesion of ice or frost. It provides a basic idea for solving the frosting problem under ultralow temperature while combined with other defrosting methods

    Table1_Immunogenic cell death-related gene landscape predicts the overall survival and immune infiltration status of ovarian cancer.XLSX

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    Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most troubling malignant tumor of the female reproductive system. It has a low early diagnosis rate and a high tumor recurrence rate after treatment. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a unique form of regulated cell death that can activate the adaptive immune system through the release of DAMPs and cytokines in immunocompromised hosts and establish long-term immunologic memory. Therefore, this study aims to explore the prognostic value and underlying mechanisms of ICD-related genes in OC on the basis of characteristics.Methods: The gene expression profiles and related clinical information of OC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. ICD-related genes were collected from the Genecards database. ICD-related prognostic genes were obtained by intersecting ICD-related genes with the OC prognostic-related genes that were analyzed in the TCGA database. Functional enrichment, genetic mutation, and immune infiltration correlation analyses were further performed to identify underlying mechanisms. Subsequently, we developed a TCGA cohort-based prognostic risk model that included a nine-gene signature through univariate and multivariate Cox regression and LASSO regression analyses. Meanwhile, external validation was performed on two sets of GEO cohorts and the TCGA training cohort for three other common tumors in women. In addition, a nomogram was established by integrating clinicopathological features and ICD-related gene signature to predict survival probability. Finally, functional enrichment and immune infiltration analyses were performed on the two risk subgroups.Results: By utilizing nine genes (ERBB2, RB1, CCR7, CD38, IFNB1, ANXA2, CXCL9, SLC9A1, and SLAMF7), we constructed an ICD-related prognostic signature. Subsequently, patients were subdivided into high- and low-risk subgroups in accordance with the median value of the risk score. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, risk score was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 2.783; p Conclusion: We constructed a novel ICD-related gene model for forecasting the prognosis and immune infiltration status of patients with OC. In the future, new ICD-related genes may provide novel potential targets for the therapeutic intervention of OC.</p

    Table2_Immunogenic cell death-related gene landscape predicts the overall survival and immune infiltration status of ovarian cancer.DOCX

    No full text
    Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most troubling malignant tumor of the female reproductive system. It has a low early diagnosis rate and a high tumor recurrence rate after treatment. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a unique form of regulated cell death that can activate the adaptive immune system through the release of DAMPs and cytokines in immunocompromised hosts and establish long-term immunologic memory. Therefore, this study aims to explore the prognostic value and underlying mechanisms of ICD-related genes in OC on the basis of characteristics.Methods: The gene expression profiles and related clinical information of OC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. ICD-related genes were collected from the Genecards database. ICD-related prognostic genes were obtained by intersecting ICD-related genes with the OC prognostic-related genes that were analyzed in the TCGA database. Functional enrichment, genetic mutation, and immune infiltration correlation analyses were further performed to identify underlying mechanisms. Subsequently, we developed a TCGA cohort-based prognostic risk model that included a nine-gene signature through univariate and multivariate Cox regression and LASSO regression analyses. Meanwhile, external validation was performed on two sets of GEO cohorts and the TCGA training cohort for three other common tumors in women. In addition, a nomogram was established by integrating clinicopathological features and ICD-related gene signature to predict survival probability. Finally, functional enrichment and immune infiltration analyses were performed on the two risk subgroups.Results: By utilizing nine genes (ERBB2, RB1, CCR7, CD38, IFNB1, ANXA2, CXCL9, SLC9A1, and SLAMF7), we constructed an ICD-related prognostic signature. Subsequently, patients were subdivided into high- and low-risk subgroups in accordance with the median value of the risk score. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, risk score was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 2.783; p Conclusion: We constructed a novel ICD-related gene model for forecasting the prognosis and immune infiltration status of patients with OC. In the future, new ICD-related genes may provide novel potential targets for the therapeutic intervention of OC.</p

    Table3_Immunogenic cell death-related gene landscape predicts the overall survival and immune infiltration status of ovarian cancer.DOCX

    No full text
    Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most troubling malignant tumor of the female reproductive system. It has a low early diagnosis rate and a high tumor recurrence rate after treatment. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a unique form of regulated cell death that can activate the adaptive immune system through the release of DAMPs and cytokines in immunocompromised hosts and establish long-term immunologic memory. Therefore, this study aims to explore the prognostic value and underlying mechanisms of ICD-related genes in OC on the basis of characteristics.Methods: The gene expression profiles and related clinical information of OC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. ICD-related genes were collected from the Genecards database. ICD-related prognostic genes were obtained by intersecting ICD-related genes with the OC prognostic-related genes that were analyzed in the TCGA database. Functional enrichment, genetic mutation, and immune infiltration correlation analyses were further performed to identify underlying mechanisms. Subsequently, we developed a TCGA cohort-based prognostic risk model that included a nine-gene signature through univariate and multivariate Cox regression and LASSO regression analyses. Meanwhile, external validation was performed on two sets of GEO cohorts and the TCGA training cohort for three other common tumors in women. In addition, a nomogram was established by integrating clinicopathological features and ICD-related gene signature to predict survival probability. Finally, functional enrichment and immune infiltration analyses were performed on the two risk subgroups.Results: By utilizing nine genes (ERBB2, RB1, CCR7, CD38, IFNB1, ANXA2, CXCL9, SLC9A1, and SLAMF7), we constructed an ICD-related prognostic signature. Subsequently, patients were subdivided into high- and low-risk subgroups in accordance with the median value of the risk score. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, risk score was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 2.783; p Conclusion: We constructed a novel ICD-related gene model for forecasting the prognosis and immune infiltration status of patients with OC. In the future, new ICD-related genes may provide novel potential targets for the therapeutic intervention of OC.</p

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Slaty-backed Forktail, <i>Enicurus schistaceus</i> (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) and phylogenetic analysis

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    The complete mitogenome of the Slaty-backed Forktail (Enicurus schistaceus) was first sequenced using next-generation sequencing. It was 17,112 bp long, with a base composition of 14.17% G, 31.77% C, 30.73% A, and 23.33% T and an AT content of 54.06%. Similar to other mitochondrial genomes within the Muscicapidae family, E. schistaceus exhibited a relatively consistent mitogenome arrangement; it consisted of 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region. Notably, ND6 and eight tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12 Muscicapidae mitogenomes substantiated the monophyly of all genera, including E. schistaceus. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrated a close relationship between Enicurus and Myophonus.</p

    mRNA expression of genes involved in osteoclast phenotypes and function.

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    <p>The mRNA expression levels of <i>Rank</i>, <i>Trap</i>, <i>Mmp-9</i> and <i>Cathepsin K</i> were significantly upregulated when the RAW264.7 cells were induced to osteoclasts (*P < 0.05 compared with control).</p
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