5 research outputs found

    Feasibility of observing Hanbury Brown and Twiss phase

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    The interferometers of Hanbury Brown and collaborators in the 1950s and 60s, and their modern descendants now being developed (intensity interferometers) measure the spatial power spectrum of the source from intensity correlations at two points. The quantum optical theory of the Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) effect shows that more is possible, in particular the phase information can be recovered by correlating intensities at three points (bispectrum). In this paper we argue that such 3 point measurements are possible for bright stars such as Sirius and Betelgeuse using off the shelf single photon counters with collecting areas of the order of 100m2. It seems possible to map individual features on the stellar surface. Simple diameter measurements would be possible with amateur class telescopes.Comment: To appear in MNRA

    The effects of baryon physics, black holes and active galactic nucleus feedback on the mass distribution in clusters of galaxies

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    The spatial distribution of matter in clusters of galaxies is mainly determined by the dominant dark matter component; however, physical processes involving baryonic matter are able to modify it significantly. We analyse a set of 500ÔÇâpc resolution cosmological simulations of a cluster of galaxies with mass comparable to Virgo, performed with the AMR code ramses. We compare the mass density profiles of the dark, stellar and gaseous matter components of the cluster that result from different assumptions for the subgrid baryonic physics and galaxy formation processes. First, the prediction of a gravity-only N-body simulation is compared to that of a hydrodynamical simulation with standard galaxy formation recipes, and then all results are compared to a hydrodynamical simulation which includes thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find the usual effects of overcooling and adiabatic contraction in the run with standard galaxy formation physics, but very different results are found when implementing SMBHs and AGN feedback. Star formation is strongly quenched, producing lower stellar densities throughout the cluster, and much less cold gas is available for star formation at low redshifts. At redshift z= 0 we find a flat density core of radius 10ÔÇâkpc in both the dark and stellar matter density profiles. We speculate on the possible formation mechanisms able to produce such cores and we conclude that they can be produced through the coupling of different processes: (I) dynamical friction from the decay of black hole orbits during galaxy mergers; (II) AGN-driven gas outflows producing fluctuations of the gravitational potential causing the removal of collisionless matter from the central region of the cluster; (III) adiabatic expansion in response to the slow expulsion of gas from the central region of the cluster during the quiescent mode of AGN activit

    The effects of baryon physics, black holes and AGN feedback on the mass distribution in clusters of galaxies

    Full text link
    The spatial distribution of matter in clusters of galaxies is mainly determined by the dominant dark matter component, however, physical processes involving baryonic matter are able to modify it significantly. We analyse a set of 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a cluster of galaxies with mass comparable to Virgo, performed with the AMR code RAMSES. We compare the mass density profiles of the dark, stellar and gaseous matter components of the cluster that result from different assumptions for the subgrid baryonic physics and galaxy formation processes. First, the prediction of a gravity only N-body simulation is compared to that of a hydrodynamical simulation with standard galaxy formation recipes, then all results are compared to a hydrodynamical simulation which includes thermal AGN feedback from Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH). We find the usual effects of overcooling and adiabatic contraction in the run with standard galaxy formation physics, but very different results are found when implementing SMBHs and AGN feedback. Star formation is strongly quenched, producing lower stellar densities throughout the cluster, and much less cold gas is available for star formation at low redshifts. At redshift z = 0 we find a flat density core of radius 10 kpc in both of the dark and stellar matter density profiles. We specu- late on the possible formation mechanisms able to produce such cores and we conclude that they can be produced through the coupling of different processes: (I) dynamical friction from the decay of black hole orbits during galaxy mergers; (II) AGN driven gas outflows producing fluctuations of the gravitational potential causing the removal of collisionless matter from the central region of the cluster; (III) adiabatic expansion in response to the slow expulsion of gas from the central region of the cluster during the quiescent mode of AGN activity.Comment: Published on MNRAS - 13 pages, 4 tables, 9 figure

    SPIO-enhanced MRI as a nondestructive in vivo method to assess vascularization of 3D Degrapol® scaffolds planted on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo in ovo

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    MRI has recently been presented as a nondestructive in vivo readout to report perfusion capacity in biomaterials planted on the CAM in the living chick embryo in ovo. Perfusion capacity was assessed through changes in T1 relaxation pre- and post-injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent, Gd-DOTA (Dotarem®). Hence local contrast agent concentration was dependent on perfusion, vascular permeability, and extravascular compartment size. In the present study we, therefore, explore intravascular SPIO particles of the FeraSpin® series to deliver a more direct measure of vascularization in a 3D polymer DegraPol® scaffold. Furthermore, we present contrast enhancement upon SPIOs of different particle size, namely FeraSpin® series XS, M, XXL and Endorem® for comparison, and hence different efficiency on T1 and T2, and study respective dose-effects. No signal change was observed within the egg yolk, consistent with the SPIO remaining in the vasculature. Consequently, T1 positive signal enhancement (reduction in T1) and T2 negative contrast (reduction in T2) were observed only in the vasculature and hence were restricted mainly to the surface of the CAM at the interface to the biomaterial. Furthermore, the effect upon T2 appears stronger than in T1 with all SPIOs investigated and at blood concentrations between 0.46 mM to 4.65 mM. Comparison of different concentrations shows larger T1 enhancement at the highest dose, as expected. Vessel structures in and around the scaffold as seen in MRI were corroborated by histology. Different particle sizes show reduced T1 effect with larger particles, yet the effect on T2 was less apparent. In sum, SPIO-enhanced MRI provides measures for vascularization nondestructively in biomaterials connected to the CAM, based on intravascular contrast enhancement in T1 and T2, in ovo in the living chick embryo. Small SPIOs provide the best efficiency for that purpose, and contrast enhancement is most prominent in T2
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