13 research outputs found

    Educating L2 learners about collaborative writing: exploring the relationship between knowledge of collaborative writing and writing products

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    Although research about the effectiveness of second or foreign language collaborative writing for jointly written products has proliferated in the last few decades, there has been less examination of whether and how pre-task preparation could maximize the language learning opportunities that collaborative writing can afford learners. Informed by metacognition theory, this study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the impacts of one technique for preparing students, namely educating them about collaborative writing knowledge. This study compared collaborative writing products from two parallel classes (one with exposure to explicit collaborative writing knowledge and one without) to investigate whether and how knowledge about collaborative writing affected the complexity, fluency, accuracy, and quality of collaboratively drafted essays. The findings indicated that students who were exposed to collaborative writing knowledge outperformed those who were not in terms of the accuracy, fluency, and quality (content, organization, grammar, and vocabulary) of their collaboratively drafted essays. The findings also revealed that knowledge of collaborative writing affects the quality of collaboratively drafted essays from the perspective of metacognitive strategies, namely planning, monitoring, and evaluating one’s own writing process.</p

    Understanding an assessment approach in computer-mediated collaborative writing: Learner perceptions and interactions

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    While much research supports the benefits of computer-mediated collaborative writing (CW) in second language (L2) classrooms, the assessment of CW has received scant attention. This study proposed an assessment scheme considering both the products and processes when assessing online synchronous CW, and explored its effects on learners’ interactions and perceptions of the process-and-product-based assessment approach through qualitative analyses. Through analyzing 21 dyads’ online pair talk and revision histories in CW tasks, post-task reflections, and interviews, this study found that assessment approach impacted patterns of collaboration, as well as the quantity and quality of peer interaction. Also, learners reported multiple advantages of the process-and-product-based assessment approach in computer-mediated CW, including increasing fairness, promoting better performance, and facilitating effective collaboration. Further, the process-and-product-based CW assessment approach raised learners’ awareness of the value of the collaboration process, motivated students to be critical collaborators, and promoted regulated learning. Nevertheless, students expressed concerns that this assessment approach might bring pressure and disrupt idea negotiation. The findings can further our understanding of the role that assessment plays in computer-mediated CW tasks and shed new light on possible ways of implementing CW assessment practices that may facilitate learning and positive learner perceptions in L2 writing classrooms. 尽管许多研究表明计算机辅助合作写作在第二语言课堂中有很多益处, 但如何评价和评估合作写作却很少受到关注。本研究提出了一同时考虑写作结果和写作过程的对线上同步合作写作的评估方法, 并通过定性分析探讨了学习者对这一评估方法的态度以及在使用这一评估方法时对学习者合作互动的影响。通过对21组学习者合作写作时的在线合作对话, 修改历史记录, 任务后反思和访谈的分析, 本研究发现, 基于合作写作过程和结果的评估方法影响了学习者合作写作的互动模式以及同伴互动话语的数量和质量。此外, 学习者还报告了基于过程和结果的评估方法在计算机辅助合作写作中的多重优势, 包括提高公平性、促进更好的合作表现和提高写作质量。此外, 基于过程和结果的合作写作评估方法提高了学习者对合作写作过程价值的认知, 激励学生成为思辨的合作者, 并促进了学习者写作过程中自主调节学习。同时, 学习者也指出这种评估方法可能存在的问题, 例如, 可能给合作者带来压力或阻碍讨论的深度。总之, 该研究的结果可以进一步加深我们对写作测评在计算机辅合作写作任务中的作用的理解, 并为实施合作写作评估实践的可能方式提供新的视角, 这些实践可以促进二语写作学习和提高学习者的积极认知。. While much research discusses the benefits of writing collaboratively for second language learners in online settings, little research has studied how to grade learner performance when English learners complete collaborative writing (CW) tasks. We provided a method in this study to evaluate language learners’ performance when they work in pairs to write essays online. This method considers both the quality of their co-constructed texts and the extent to which they actively participate in the discussions during the writing process. We also looked at how Chinese English learners perceived this grading method and how this method influenced their participation. Through analyzing 21 online pair talks and revision histories in CW tasks, post-task reflections, and interviews, we found that the grading method that we proposed impacted how much and how well students responded to each other and whether or not their active participation would solve the problems encountered in the CW process. Learners also reported many advantages of this grading method, including increasing fairness, promoting better writing performance, and facilitating effective collaboration. This grading method also helped the learners value the collaboration process, motivated them to be critical collaborators, and encouraged them to regulate their behaviors for better revisions in the writing process. Nevertheless, students expressed concerns that this grading method might bring pressure and disrupt their thinking while developing or negotiating ideas.</p

    Adsorption of 1‑Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid by Functional Carbon Microspheres from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Cellulose

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    Functional carbonaceous material (FCM) loaded with carboxylic groups was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose in the presence of acrylic acid. The resulting FCM was used as adsorbent for recovery of a water-soluble ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([BMIM]­[Cl]). The FCM consisted of microspheres (100–150 nm) and had a low surface area (ca. 20 m<sup>2</sup>/g), but exhibited adsorption capacity comparable to that of commercial activated carbon which can be attributed to the presence of high content of polar oxygenated groups (−OH, −CO, −COOH) as revealed by spectral analyses. Sorption of [BMIM]­[Cl] onto FCM adsorbent could be well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic and adsorption isothermal analyses revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic, and could be described by the Freundlich adsorption model. The FCM adsorbent could be regenerated effectively and recycled for at least three times without loss of adsorption capacity. The results of this work provide a facile method for production of functional carbonaceous materials from renewable resources that can be used for treatment of aqueous streams containing small concentrations of ionic liquid, [BMIM]­[Cl]

    Image_3_Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in paradormant bud release response in ‘Summer Black’ grape.jpeg

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    Grapevines possess a hierarchy of buds, and the fruitful winter bud forms the foundation of the two-crop-a-year cultivation system, yielding biannual harvests. Throughout its developmental stages, the winter bud sequentially undergoes paradormancy, endodormancy, and ecodormancy to ensure survival in challenging environmental conditions. Releasing the endodormancy of winter bud results in the first crop yield, while breaking the paradormancy of winter bud allows for the second crop harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide serves as an agent to break endodormancy, which counteracting the inhibitory effects of ABA, while H2O2 and ethylene function as signaling molecules in the process of endodormancy release. In the context of breaking paradormancy, common agronomic practices include short pruning and hydrogen cyanamide treatment. However, the mechanism of hydrogen cyanamide contributes to this process remains unknown. This study confirms that hydrogen cyanamide treatment significantly improved both the speed and uniformity of bud sprouting, while short pruning proved to be an effective method for releasing paradormancy until August. This observation highlights the role of apical dominance as a primary inhibitory factor in suppressing the sprouting of paradormant winter bud. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the sixth node winter bud convert to apical tissue following short pruning and established a polar auxin transport canal through the upregulated expression of VvPIN3 and VvTIR1. Moreover, short pruning induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, and wounding, ethylene, and H2O2 collectively acted as stimulating signals and amplified effects through the MAPK cascade. In contrast, hydrogen cyanamide treatment directly disrupted mitochondrial function, resulting in ROS production and an extended efficacy of the growth hormone signaling pathway induction.</p

    Image_5_Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in paradormant bud release response in ‘Summer Black’ grape.jpeg

    No full text
    Grapevines possess a hierarchy of buds, and the fruitful winter bud forms the foundation of the two-crop-a-year cultivation system, yielding biannual harvests. Throughout its developmental stages, the winter bud sequentially undergoes paradormancy, endodormancy, and ecodormancy to ensure survival in challenging environmental conditions. Releasing the endodormancy of winter bud results in the first crop yield, while breaking the paradormancy of winter bud allows for the second crop harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide serves as an agent to break endodormancy, which counteracting the inhibitory effects of ABA, while H2O2 and ethylene function as signaling molecules in the process of endodormancy release. In the context of breaking paradormancy, common agronomic practices include short pruning and hydrogen cyanamide treatment. However, the mechanism of hydrogen cyanamide contributes to this process remains unknown. This study confirms that hydrogen cyanamide treatment significantly improved both the speed and uniformity of bud sprouting, while short pruning proved to be an effective method for releasing paradormancy until August. This observation highlights the role of apical dominance as a primary inhibitory factor in suppressing the sprouting of paradormant winter bud. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the sixth node winter bud convert to apical tissue following short pruning and established a polar auxin transport canal through the upregulated expression of VvPIN3 and VvTIR1. Moreover, short pruning induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, and wounding, ethylene, and H2O2 collectively acted as stimulating signals and amplified effects through the MAPK cascade. In contrast, hydrogen cyanamide treatment directly disrupted mitochondrial function, resulting in ROS production and an extended efficacy of the growth hormone signaling pathway induction.</p

    Table_1_Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in paradormant bud release response in ‘Summer Black’ grape.xlsx

    No full text
    Grapevines possess a hierarchy of buds, and the fruitful winter bud forms the foundation of the two-crop-a-year cultivation system, yielding biannual harvests. Throughout its developmental stages, the winter bud sequentially undergoes paradormancy, endodormancy, and ecodormancy to ensure survival in challenging environmental conditions. Releasing the endodormancy of winter bud results in the first crop yield, while breaking the paradormancy of winter bud allows for the second crop harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide serves as an agent to break endodormancy, which counteracting the inhibitory effects of ABA, while H2O2 and ethylene function as signaling molecules in the process of endodormancy release. In the context of breaking paradormancy, common agronomic practices include short pruning and hydrogen cyanamide treatment. However, the mechanism of hydrogen cyanamide contributes to this process remains unknown. This study confirms that hydrogen cyanamide treatment significantly improved both the speed and uniformity of bud sprouting, while short pruning proved to be an effective method for releasing paradormancy until August. This observation highlights the role of apical dominance as a primary inhibitory factor in suppressing the sprouting of paradormant winter bud. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the sixth node winter bud convert to apical tissue following short pruning and established a polar auxin transport canal through the upregulated expression of VvPIN3 and VvTIR1. Moreover, short pruning induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, and wounding, ethylene, and H2O2 collectively acted as stimulating signals and amplified effects through the MAPK cascade. In contrast, hydrogen cyanamide treatment directly disrupted mitochondrial function, resulting in ROS production and an extended efficacy of the growth hormone signaling pathway induction.</p

    Image_2_Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in paradormant bud release response in ‘Summer Black’ grape.jpeg

    No full text
    Grapevines possess a hierarchy of buds, and the fruitful winter bud forms the foundation of the two-crop-a-year cultivation system, yielding biannual harvests. Throughout its developmental stages, the winter bud sequentially undergoes paradormancy, endodormancy, and ecodormancy to ensure survival in challenging environmental conditions. Releasing the endodormancy of winter bud results in the first crop yield, while breaking the paradormancy of winter bud allows for the second crop harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide serves as an agent to break endodormancy, which counteracting the inhibitory effects of ABA, while H2O2 and ethylene function as signaling molecules in the process of endodormancy release. In the context of breaking paradormancy, common agronomic practices include short pruning and hydrogen cyanamide treatment. However, the mechanism of hydrogen cyanamide contributes to this process remains unknown. This study confirms that hydrogen cyanamide treatment significantly improved both the speed and uniformity of bud sprouting, while short pruning proved to be an effective method for releasing paradormancy until August. This observation highlights the role of apical dominance as a primary inhibitory factor in suppressing the sprouting of paradormant winter bud. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the sixth node winter bud convert to apical tissue following short pruning and established a polar auxin transport canal through the upregulated expression of VvPIN3 and VvTIR1. Moreover, short pruning induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, and wounding, ethylene, and H2O2 collectively acted as stimulating signals and amplified effects through the MAPK cascade. In contrast, hydrogen cyanamide treatment directly disrupted mitochondrial function, resulting in ROS production and an extended efficacy of the growth hormone signaling pathway induction.</p

    Image_1_Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in paradormant bud release response in ‘Summer Black’ grape.jpeg

    No full text
    Grapevines possess a hierarchy of buds, and the fruitful winter bud forms the foundation of the two-crop-a-year cultivation system, yielding biannual harvests. Throughout its developmental stages, the winter bud sequentially undergoes paradormancy, endodormancy, and ecodormancy to ensure survival in challenging environmental conditions. Releasing the endodormancy of winter bud results in the first crop yield, while breaking the paradormancy of winter bud allows for the second crop harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide serves as an agent to break endodormancy, which counteracting the inhibitory effects of ABA, while H2O2 and ethylene function as signaling molecules in the process of endodormancy release. In the context of breaking paradormancy, common agronomic practices include short pruning and hydrogen cyanamide treatment. However, the mechanism of hydrogen cyanamide contributes to this process remains unknown. This study confirms that hydrogen cyanamide treatment significantly improved both the speed and uniformity of bud sprouting, while short pruning proved to be an effective method for releasing paradormancy until August. This observation highlights the role of apical dominance as a primary inhibitory factor in suppressing the sprouting of paradormant winter bud. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the sixth node winter bud convert to apical tissue following short pruning and established a polar auxin transport canal through the upregulated expression of VvPIN3 and VvTIR1. Moreover, short pruning induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, and wounding, ethylene, and H2O2 collectively acted as stimulating signals and amplified effects through the MAPK cascade. In contrast, hydrogen cyanamide treatment directly disrupted mitochondrial function, resulting in ROS production and an extended efficacy of the growth hormone signaling pathway induction.</p
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