44 research outputs found

    A Critical Appraisal of the Physicochemical Properties and Biological Effects of Artificial Tear Ingredients and Formulations

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    Dry eye disease is among the most prevalent diseases affecting the ocular surface. Artificial tears remain the cornerstone therapy for its management. There are currently a wide variety of marketed artificial tears available to choose from. These artificial tears differ significantly in their composition and formulation. This article reviews the physicochemical and biological properties of artificial tear components and how these characteristics determine their use and efficacy in the management of dry eye. Furthermore, this article also discusses the various formulations of artificial tears such as macro and nanoemulsion and the type of preservatives present in them

    Impact of High Glucose on Ocular Surface Glycocalyx Components: Implications for Diabetes-Associated Ocular Surface Damage

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    Diabetes mellitus causes several detrimental effects on the ocular surface, including compromised barrier function and an increased risk of infections. The glycocalyx plays a vital role in barrier function. The present study was designed to test the effect of a high glucose level on components of glycocalyx. Stratified human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to a high glucose concentration for 24 and 72 h. Changes in Mucin (MUC) 1, 4, 16 expression were quantified using real-time PCR and ELISA. Rose bengal and jacalin staining were used to assess the spatial distribution of MUC16 and O-glycosylation. Changes in the gene expression of five glycosyltransferases and forty-two proteins involved in cell proliferation and the cell cycle were also quantified using PCR and a gene array. High glucose exposure did not affect the level or spatial distribution of membrane-tethered MUC 1, 4, and 16 either in the corneal or conjunctival epithelial cells. No change in gene expression in glycosyltransferases was observed, but a decrease in the gene expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and the cell cycle was observed. A high-glucose-mediated decrease in gene expression of proteins involved in cellular proliferation of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells may be one of the mechanisms underlying a diabetes-associated decrease in ocular surface’s glycocalyx

    Guideline for UK midwives/health visitors to use with parents of infants at risk of developing childhood overweight/obesity

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    A guideline for members of the health visiting team to use with parents of infants at risk of overweight/obesity has been developed. The guideline contains recommendations about identification of infants at risk as well as a number of strategies that could be used for prevention of overweight/obesity. The guideline needs to be applied alongside health visitors’ professional judgement. It is not intended to replace normal UK clinical practice which is guided by the Healthy Child Programme and complements existing guidance such as the Framework for Action for tackling obesity

    Development of an evidence-based practice guideline for UK public health nurses (health visitors) to use with parents of infants at risk of obesity

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    Introduction: Evidence about effective interventions that reduce obesity risk during infancy is needed. This project aimed to systematically review published Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) of behavioural and non-behavioural interventions which address potential risk factors for obesity to inform a guideline for UK health visitors. Methods: A multiprofessional Guideline Development Group (GDG) was convened to undertake a systematic review, based on the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Findings from the review were used to develop a guideline which was subsequently externally reviewed by national experts and practitioners. Results: We identified 28 RCTs reporting behavioural and non-behavioural interventions delivered during infancy with breastfeeding and/or weight outcomes measured during the first two years of life. A number of on-going studies were also identified. Inclusion criteria for intervention studies included parental breastfeeding intentions and first time parents. Good evidence exists for breastfeeding promotion and support interventions. Evidence exists for parental education around responsive feeding, aspects of infant diet and soothing/sleep expectations. These behavioural components informed the guideline. Despite good evidence that infants fed lower protein formula milk gained less weight compared to milk with higher protein levels, it was not possible to incorporate the evidence from the non-behavioural studies into the guideline. Conclusion: Further research is needed to establish clinically effective interventions for obesity prevention during infancy. Continuous dialogue between commissioners, policy makers, health visitors and parents is essential to ensure existing UK policies are not a barrier to implementing obesity prevention strategies in the first year of life

    Diabetes-Associated Hyperglycemia Causes Rapid-Onset Ocular Surface Damage

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    Purpose: The metabolic alterations due to chronic hyperglycemia are well-known to cause diabetes-associated complications. Short-term hyperglycemia has also been shown to cause many acute changes, including hemodynamic alterations and osmotic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress. The present study was designed to investigate whether diabetes-associated hyperglycemia can cause rapid-onset detrimental effects on the tear film, goblet cells, and glycocalyx and can lead to activation of an inflammatory cascade or cellular stress response in the cornea. Methods: Mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were used. Tear film volume, goblet cell number, and corneal glycocalyx area were measured on days 7, 14, and 28 after the onset of hyperglycemia. Transcriptome analysis was performed to quantify changes in 248 transcripts of genes involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and stress response pathways. Results: Our data demonstrate that type 1 and type 2 diabetes-associated hyperglycemia caused a significant decrease in the tear film volume, goblet cell number, and corneal glycocalyx area. The decrease in tear film and goblet cell number was noted as early as 7 days after onset of hyperglycemia. The severity of ocular surface injury was significantly more in type 1 compared to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus also caused an increase in transcripts of genes involved in the inflammatory, apoptotic, and cellular stress response pathways. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that diabetes-associated hyperglycemia causes rapid-onset damage to the ocular surface. Thus, short-term hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus may also play an important role in causing ocular surface injury and dry eye

    Validation, optimal threshold determination, and clinical utility of the Infant Risk of Overweight Checklist (IROC) for early prevention of child overweight

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    Background: Previous research has demonstrated the predictive validity of the Infant Risk of Overweight Checklist (IROC). This study further establishes the predictive accuracy of the IROC using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and examines the optimal threshold for determining high risk of childhood overweight. Methods: Using the IROC algorithm, we calculated the risk of being overweight, based on International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in the first year of life for 980 children in the ALSPAC cohort at 5 years. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC c¬¬-statistic). Net reclassification index (NRI) was calculated for risk thresholds ranging from 2.5% to 30% which determine cut-offs for identifying infants at risk of becoming overweight. Results: At five years of age, 12.3% of boys and 19.6% of girls were categorised overweight. Discrimination (AUC c-statistic) ranged from 0.67 (95% CI 0.62 – 0.72) when risk scores were calculated directly to 0.93 (95% CI 0.88 – 0.98) when the algorithm was recalibrated and missing values of the risk factor algorithm were imputed. The NRI showed there were positive gains in reclassification using risk thresholds from 5% to 20%, with the maximum NRI being at 10%. Conclusions: This study confirms the IROC has moderately good validity for assessing overweight risk in infants and offers an optimal threshold for determining high risk. The IROC algorithm has been imbedded into a computer programme for Proactive Assessment of Obesity Risk during Infancy (ProAsk) which facilitates early overweight prevention through communication of risk to parents. http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/chi.2015.024

    Local Renin-Angiotensin System Activation and Myofibroblast Formation in Graft Versus Host Disease–Associated Conjunctival Fibrosis

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    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the role of myofibroblast transdifferentiation and the conjunctival renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)–associated conjunctival fibrosis. Methods: A mouse model of major histocompatibility-matched allogeneic transplantation was used to induce GVHD, with male B10.D2 mice as donors and female BALB/c mice as recipients. Male BALB/c to female BALB/c syngeneic transplantation was used as control. Y chromosome staining in the spleen cells obtained from female recipient mice was used to confirm engraftment. The phenol red thread test and fluorescein staining were used to quantify tears and corneal keratopathy. Eyes were harvested at 4 and 8 weeks after the transplant for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), angiotensinogen, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) immunostaining. Conjunctiva was harvested for gene expression quantification of α-SMA, angiotensinogen, and ACE. Results: More than 80% of the spleen cells in the recipient mice were chromosome Y positive, thus conforming successful engraftment. A significant decrease in tear secretion and a marked increase in corneal keratopathy score after allogeneic transplantation indicated the onset of ocular GVHD in these mice. A significant increase in α-SMA gene expression and the presence of a large number of α-SMA–positive cells was noted in the bulbar orbital conjunctiva of mice after allogeneic transplantation. Allogenic transplantation also caused a significant increase in the gene expression and protein expression of angiotensinogen and ACE in the subconjunctival eyelid area. Conclusions: Results of the present study demonstrate that GVHD-associated conjunctival fibrosis is accompanied by myofibroblast formation and activation of the local conjunctival RAS

    Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of interventions that aim to reduce the risk, either directly or indirectly, of overweight and obesity in infancy and early childhood

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    The risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity are known and can be identified antenatally or during infancy, however, the majority of effective interventions are designed for older children. This review identified interventions designed to reduce the risk of overweight/obesity that were delivered antenatally or during the first 2 years of life, with outcomes reported from birth to 7 years of age. Six electronic databases were searched for papers reporting randomised controlled trials of interventions published from January 1990 to September 2013. A total of 35 eligible studies were identified, describing 27 unique trials of which 24 were behavioural and three were non-behavioural. The 24 behavioural trials were categorised by type of intervention: (1) nutritional and/or responsive feeding interventions targeted at parents of infants, which improved feeding practices and had some impact on child weight (n = 12); (2) breastfeeding promotion and lactation support for mothers, which had a positive effect on breastfeeding but not child weight (n = 5); (3) parenting and family lifestyle (n = 4); and (4) maternal health (n = 3) interventions that had some impact on feeding practices but not child weight. The non-behavioural trials comprised interventions manipulating formula milk composition (n = 3). Of these, lower/hydrolysed protein formula milk had a positive effect on weight outcomes. Interventions that aim to improve diet and parental responsiveness to infant cues showed most promise in terms of self-reported behavioural change. Despite the known risk factors, there were very few intervention studies for pregnant women that continue during infancy which should be a priority for future research

    Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of interventions that aim to reduce the risk, either directly or indirectly, of overweight and obesity in infancy and early childhood

    Get PDF
    The risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity are known and can be identified antenatally or during infancy, however, the majority of effective interventions are designed for older children. This review identified interventions designed to reduce the risk of overweight/obesity that were delivered antenatally or during the first 2 years of life, with outcomes reported from birth to 7 years of age. Six electronic databases were searched for papers reporting randomised controlled trials of interventions published from January 1990 to September 2013. A total of 35 eligible studies were identified, describing 27 unique trials of which 24 were behavioural and three were non-behavioural. The 24 behavioural trials were categorised by type of intervention: (1) nutritional and/or responsive feeding interventions targeted at parents of infants, which improved feeding practices and had some impact on child weight (n = 12); (2) breastfeeding promotion and lactation support for mothers, which had a positive effect on breastfeeding but not child weight (n = 5); (3) parenting and family lifestyle (n = 4); and (4) maternal health (n = 3) interventions that had some impact on feeding practices but not child weight. The non-behavioural trials comprised interventions manipulating formula milk composition (n = 3). Of these, lower/hydrolysed protein formula milk had a positive effect on weight outcomes. Interventions that aim to improve diet and parental responsiveness to infant cues showed most promise in terms of self-reported behavioural change. Despite the known risk factors, there were very few intervention studies for pregnant women that continue during infancy which should be a priority for future research

    “I would rather be told than not know” - A qualitative study exploring parental views on identifying the future risk of childhood overweight and obesity during infancy

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    BACKGROUND: Risk assessment tools provide an opportunity to prevent childhood overweight and obesity through early identification and intervention to influence infant feeding practices. Engaging parents of infants is paramount for success however; the literature suggests there is uncertainty surrounding the use of such tools with concerns about stigmatisation, labelling and expressions of parental guilt. This study explores parents' views on identifying future risk of childhood overweight and obesity during infancy and communicating risk to parents. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 parents and inductive, interpretive and thematic analysis performed. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) Identification of infant overweight and obesity risk. Parents were hesitant about health professionals identifying infant overweight as believed they would recognise this for themselves, in addition parents feared judgement from health professionals. Identification of future obesity risk during infancy was viewed positively however the use of a non-judgemental communication style was viewed as imperative. 2) Consequences of infant overweight. Parents expressed immediate anxieties about the impact of excess weight on infant ability to start walking. Parents were aware of the progressive nature of childhood obesity however, did not view overweight as a significant problem until the infant could walk as viewed this as a point when any excess weight would be lost due to increased energy expenditure. 3) Parental attributions of causality, responsibility, and control. Parents articulated a high level of personal responsibility for preventing and controlling overweight during infancy, which translated into self-blame. Parents attributed infant overweight to overfeeding however articulated a reluctance to modify infant feeding practices prior to weaning. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to explore the use of obesity risk tools in clinical practice, the findings suggest that identification, and communication of future overweight and obesity risk is acceptable to parents of infants. Despite this positive response, findings suggest that parents' acceptance to identification of risk and implementation of behaviour change is time specific. The apparent level of parental responsibility, fear of judgement and self-blame also highlights the importance of health professionals approach to personalised risk communication so feelings of self-blame are negated and stigmatisation avoided
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