10 research outputs found

    Effects of silicon addition to rice plants (TN1) on growth and development of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> larvae and pupae.

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    <p>A: Larval duration, B: weight of third instars, C: larval survival rate, D: pupal duration, E: pupal weight, F: pupation rate. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications. Larval duration, larval survival rate and pupation rate were observed to three 150-first-instar groups in each treatment.</p

    Effects of silicon addition to rice plants (TN1) on food consumption efficiency in third instars of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i>.

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    <p>A: Food consumed, B: relative consumption rate (<i>RCR</i>), C: relative growth rate (<i>RGR</i>), D: approximate digestibility (<i>AD</i>), E: efficiency of conversion of ingested food (<i>ECI</i>), F: efficiency of conversion of digested food (<i>ECD</i>). Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    Effects of silicon addition on silicon and soluble sugar content and C:N ratio in the reciprocal fourth leaves and stems.

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    <p>A: Silicon content in rice leaves, B: silicon content in rice stems, C: soluble sugar content in rice leaves, D: C:N ratio in rice leaves. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    GSK3β inactivation promoted the stability of EZH2 protein <i>in vitro</i>.

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    <p>(A, B) Representative western blot analysis of EZH2 after GSK3β-KD (2 μg/mL) or control plasmid transfection in CNE-1 cells; CNE-1 cells were treated with cycloheximide (20 μM) after transfection, and EZH2 protein level in the indicated time point was detected by western blot analysis which containing equal amounts of protein. (C) The half-life of EZH2, as suggested by the relative EZH2 intensity, was significantly longer in GSK3β-KD group than in normal control (<i>p</i><0.05). The data indicate the means (SEM) of 3 independent experiments. KD: kinase-dead GSK3β plasmid; NC, normal control plasmid.</p

    Expression of p-GSK3β (Ser9) and EZH2 in NPC tissues and normal controls.

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    <p>(A) Representative immunohistochemical staining results of EZH2 and p-GSK3β (Ser9) in NPC and control tissues; (B) The mean number of EZH2 positive cells is greater in NPC tissues than in normal controls; (C) The mean number of p-GSK3β positive cells is greater in NPC tissues than in normal controls; (D) Coincident high or low EZH2 and p-GSK3β (Ser9) immunohistochemical staining in 2 representative NPC tissues; (E) Immunoreactivity of EZH2 is positively associated with p-GSK3β (Ser9) immunoreactivity in NPC tissues; (F) Immunoreactivity of EZH2 is positively associated with higher stage of NPC.</p

    GSK3β-enhanced migration and invasion of NPC cells were abrogated by EZH2 siRNA transfection.

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    <p>(A–C) The siRNA knockdown efficiency was evaluated by testing the protein level of EZH2. EZH2 siRNA transfection significantly reduced EZH2 expression in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells; (D,E) Inhibition of EZH2 by EZH2 siRNA (50 nmol/L) transfection significantly inhibited migration of CNE-1 and CNE-2; (F,G) EZH2 siRNA (50 nmol/L) transfection significantly inhibited GSK3β-KD-dependent migration of CNE-1 and CNE-2; (H,I) Inhibition of EZH2 by EZH2 siRNA (50 nmol/L) transfection significantly inhibited invasion of CNE-1 and CNE-2; (J,K) EZH2 siRNA transfection significantly inhibited GSK3β-KD-dependent invasion of CNE-1 and CNE-2. Migration and invasion of NPC cells were evaluated after EZH2 siRNA (50 nmol/L) and/or GSK3β-KD plasmid (2 μg/mL) were transfected for 48 or 72 h. The data indicate the means (SEM) of 3 independent experiments. NC: normal control; KD: kinase-dead GSK-3β plasmid.</p

    Evidence that GSK3β is able to bind to EZH2 in NPC cell lines.

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    <p>(A) Schematic diagram of the putative GSK3β phosphorylation motif sequence alignment in EZH2; (B) Evidence that GSK3β is able to bind to EZH2, as determined by immunoprecipitation and immune blotting. Lysates from CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells were used for immunoprecipitation. IB: immune blot; IP: immunoprecipitation.</p

    Inhibition of GSK-3β activity enhanced invasion of NPC cells.

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    <p>(A) Representative photos showing the NPC cell density on the filter after transfection with GSK3β plasmid. Inhibition of GSK-3β by GSK3β-KD transfection enhanced invasion of CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, whereas activation of GSK-3β by GSK3β-CA transfection suppressed invasion of CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells; (B) Quantitative analyses of the number of invaded cells showed that the invaded cells in GSK3β-KD group increased significantly, whereas those in GSK3β-CA group decreased significantly when compared to the control. Invasion of NPC cells was evaluated by transwell assay after transfection with GSK3β-KD or CA plasmid (2 μg/mL) for 72 h. The data indicate the means (SEM) of 3 independent experiments. NC, normal control; CA: constitutively active GSK-3β plasmid; KD: kinase-dead GSK-3β plasmid.</p

    Inactivation of GSK3β upregulated EZH2 production in NPC cells.

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    <p>(A) The transfection efficiency was evaluated by testing the protein level of GSK3β. Representative western blot analysis of p-GSK3β (Ser9) after GSK3β-CA or KD transfection or lithium treatment (20 mmol/L) in NPC cells; (B) GSK3β-CA transfection (2 μg/mL) significantly reduced p-GSK3β (Ser9) production in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, whereas GSK3β-KD transfection (2 μg/mL) or lithium treatment (20 mmol/L) significantly increased p-GSK3β (Ser9) production in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells; (C) Representative western blot analysis of EZH2 after GSK3β-CA or KD transfection in NPC cells; (D) GSK3β-CA transfection (2 μg/mL) significantly reduced EZH2 production in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, whereas GSK3β-KD transfection (2 μg/mL) significantly increased EZH2 production in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells; (E) Representative western blot analysis of EZH2 after lithium treatment (20 mmol/L) in NPC cells; (F) Lithium treatment (20 mmol/L) significantly increased EZH2 production in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells. The data indicate the means (SEM) of 3 independent experiments. NC: normal control; CA: constitutively active GSK-3β plasmid; KD: kinase-dead GSK-3β plasmid.</p
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