21,784 research outputs found

    Expressiveness of Generic Process Shape Types

    Full text link
    Shape types are a general concept of process types which work for many process calculi. We extend the previously published Poly* system of shape types to support name restriction. We evaluate the expressiveness of the extended system by showing that shape types are more expressive than an implicitly typed pi-calculus and an explicitly typed Mobile Ambients. We demonstrate that the extended system makes it easier to enjoy advantages of shape types which include polymorphism, principal typings, and a type inference implementation.Comment: Submitted to Trustworthy Global Computing (TGC) 2010

    Fundamental frequency height as a resource for the management of overlap in talk-in-interaction.

    Get PDF
    Overlapping talk is common in talk-in-interaction. Much of the previous research on this topic agrees that speaker overlaps can be either turn competitive or noncompetitive. An investigation of the differences in prosodic design between these two classes of overlaps can offer insight into how speakers use and orient to prosody as a resource for turn competition. In this paper, we investigate the role of fundamental frequency (F0) as a resource for turn competition in overlapping speech. Our methodological approach combines detailed conversation analysis of overlap instances with acoustic measurements of F0 in the overlapping sequence and in its local context. The analyses are based on a collection of overlap instances drawn from the ICSI Meeting corpus. We found that overlappers mark an overlapping incoming as competitive by raising F0 above their norm for turn beginnings, and retaining this higher F0 until the point of overlap resolution. Overlappees may respond to these competitive incomings by returning competition, in which case they raise their F0 too. Our results thus provide instrumental support for earlier claims made on impressionistic evidence, namely that participants in talk-in-interaction systematically manipulate F0 height when competing for the turn

    Temporal markers of prosodic boundaries in children's speech production

    Get PDF
    It is often thought that the ability to use prosodic features accurately is mastered in early childhood. However, research to date has produced conflicting evidence, notably about the development of children's ability to mark prosodic boundaries. This paper investigates (i) whether, by the age of eight, children use temporal boundary features in their speech in a systematic way, and (ii) to what extent adult listeners are able to interpret their production accurately and unambiguously. The material consists of minimal pairs of utterances: one utterance includes a compound noun, in which there is no prosodic boundary after the first noun, e.g. ‘coffee-cake and tea’, while the other utterance includes simple nouns, separated by a prosodic boundary, e.g. ‘coffee, cake and tea’. Ten eight-year-old children took part, and their productions were rated by 23 adult listeners. Two phonetic exponents of prosodic boundaries were analysed: pause duration and phrase-final lengthening. The results suggest that, at the age of 8, there is considerable variability among children in their ability to mark phrase boundaries of the kind analysed in the experiment, with some children failing to differentiate between the members of the minimal pairs reliably. The differences between the children in their use of boundary features were reflected in the adults' perceptual judgements. Both temporal cues to prosodic boundaries significantly affected the perceptual ratings, with pause being a more salient determinant of ratings than phrase-final lengthening

    Realisability Semantics for Intersection Types and Expansion Variables

    Get PDF
    Expansion was invented at the end of the 1970s for calculating principal typings for λ\lambda-terms in type systems with intersection types. Expansion variables (E-variables) were invented at the end of the 1990s to simplify and help mechanise expansion. Recently, E-variables have been further simplified and generalised to also allow calculating type operators other than just intersection. There has been much work on denotational semantics for type systems with intersection types, but none whatsoever before now on type systems with E-variables. Building a semantics for E-variables turns out to be challenging. To simplify the problem, we consider only E-variables, and not the corresponding operation of expansion. We develop a realisability semantics where each use of an E-variable in a type corresponds to an independent degree at which evaluation occurs in the λ\lambda-term that is assigned the type. In the λ\lambda-term being evaluated, the only interaction possible between portions at different degrees is that higher degree portions can be passed around but never applied to lower degree portions. We apply this semantics to two intersection type systems. We show these systems are sound, that completeness does not hold for the first system, and completeness holds for the second system when only one E-variable is allowed (although it can be used many times and nested). As far as we know, this is the first study of a denotational semantics of intersection type systems with E-variables (using realisability or any other approach)

    Wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic pressures on the Apollo command module configuration

    Get PDF
    Wind tunnel study of aerodynamic pressures on Apollo command module configuratio

    Phonon-induced linewidths of graphene electronic states

    Full text link
    The linewidths of the electronic bands originating from the electron-phonon coupling in graphene are analyzed based on model tight-binding calculations and experimental angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. Our calculations confirm the prediction that the high-energy optical phonons provide the most essential contribution to the phonon-induced linewidth of the two upper occupied σ\sigma bands near the Γˉ\bar{\Gamma}-point. For larger binding energies of these bands, as well as for the π\pi band, we find evidence for a substantial lifetime broadening from interband scattering πσ\pi \rightarrow \sigma and σπ\sigma \rightarrow \pi, respectively, driven by the out-of-plane ZA acoustic phonons. The essential features of the calculated σ\sigma band linewidths are in agreement with recent published ARPES data [F. Mazzola et al., Phys.~Rev.~B. 95, 075430 (2017)] and of the π\pi band linewidth with ARPES data presented here.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Concepts and procedures used to determine certain sea wave characteristics

    Get PDF
    A technique and its application are presented by which wave parameters, critical to spacecraft water impact load analysis, may be determined

    Phonological awareness development in children with and without spoken language difficulties: A 12-month longitudinal study of German-speaking preschool children

    Get PDF
    Purpose: There is strong empirical evidence that English-speaking children with spoken language difficulties (SLD) often have phonological awareness (PA) deficits. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinally if this is also true of preschool children speaking German, a language that makes extensive use of derivational morphemes which may impact on the acquisition of different PA levels. Method: Thirty four-year-old children with SLD were assessed on eleven PA subtests at three points over a 12-month period and compared to 97 four-year-old typically developing (TD) children. Result: The TD-group had a mean percentage correct of over 50% for the majority of tasks (including phoneme tasks) and their PA skills developed significantly over time. In contrast, the SLD-group improved their PA performance over time on syllable and rhyme but not on phoneme level tasks. Group comparisons revealed that children with SLD had weaker PA skills, in particular on phoneme level tasks. Conclusion: The study contributes a longitudinal perspective on PA development before school entry. In line with their English-speaking peers, German-speaking children with SLD showed poorer PA skills than TD peers, indicating that the relationship between SLD and PA is similar across these two related but different languages
    corecore