116 research outputs found

    Towards an online mitigation strategy for N2O emissions through principal components analysis and clustering techniques

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    Emission of N2O represents an increasing concern in wastewater treatment, in particular for its large contribution to the plant's carbon footprint (CFP). In view of the potential introduction of more stringent regulations regarding wastewater treatment plants' CFP, there is a growing need for advanced monitoring with online implementation of mitigation strategies for N2O emissions. Mechanistic kinetic modelling in full-scale applications, are often represented by a very detailed representation of the biological mechanisms resulting in an elevated uncertainty on the many parameters used while limited by a poor representation of hydrodynamics. This is particularly true for current N2O kinetic models. In this paper, a possible full-scale implementation of a data mining approach linking plant-specific dynamics to N2O production is proposed. A data mining approach was tested on full-scale data along with different clustering techniques to identify process criticalities. The algorithm was designed to provide an applicable solution for full-scale plants' control logics aimed at online N2O emission mitigation. Results show the ability of the algorithm to isolate specific N2O emission pathways, and highlight possible solutions towards emission control

    Revised calibration of the mbt-cbt paleotemperature proxy based on branched tetraether membrane lipids in surface soils

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    The MBT-CBT proxy for the reconstruction of paleotemperatures and past soil pH is based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids. The Methylation of Branched Tetraether (MBT) and the Cyclisation of Branched Tetraether (CBT) indices were developed to quantify these distributions, and significant empirical relations between these indices and annual mean air temperature (MAT) and/or soil pH were found in a large data set of soils. In this study, we extended this soil dataset to 278 globally distributed surface soils. Of these soils, 26% contains all nine brGDGTs, while in 63% of the soils the seven most common brGDGTs were detected, and the latter were selected for calibration purposes. This resulted in new transfer functions for the reconstruction of pH based on the CBT index: pH = 7.90-1.97 x CBT (r(2) = 0.70; RMSE = 0.8; n = 176), as well as for MAT based on the CBT index and methylation index based on the seven most abundant GDGTs (defined as MBT'): MAT = 0.81-5.67 x CBT + 31.0 x MBT' (r(2) = 0.59; RMSE = 5.0 degrees C; n = 176). The new transfer function for MAT has a substantially lower correlation coefficient than the original equation (r(2) = 0.77). To investigate possible improvement of the correlation, we used our extended global surface soil dataset to statistically derive the indices that best describe the relations of brGDGT composition with MAT and soil pH. These new indices, however, resulted in only a relatively minor increase in correlation coefficients, while they cannot be explained straightforwardly by physiological mechanisms. The large scatter in the calibration cannot be fully explained by local factors or by seasonality, but MAT for soils from arid regions are generally substantially (up to 20 degrees C) underestimated, suggesting that absolute brGDGT-based temperature records for these areas should be interpreted with caution.<br>The applicability of the new MBT'-CBT calibration function was tested using previously published MBT-CBT-derived paleotemperature records covering the last deglaciation in Central Africa and East Asia, the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. The results show that trends remain similar in all records, but that absolute temperature estimates and the amplitude of temperature changes are lower for most records, and generally in better agreement with independent proxy data

    Multi-point monitoring of nitrous oxide emissions in three full-scale conventional activated sludge tanks in Europe

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    The large global warming potential of nitrous oxide (N2O) is currently of general concern for the water industry, especially in view of a new regulatory framework concerning the carbon footprint of water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). N2O can be generated through different biological pathways and from different treatment steps of a WRRF. The use of generic emission factors (EF) for quantifying the emissions of WRRFs is discouraged. This is due to the number of different factors that can affect how much, when and where N2O is emitted from WRRFs. The spatial and temporal variability of three WRRFs in Europe using comparable technologies is presented. An economically feasible and user-friendly method for accounting for the contribution of anoxic zones via direct gas emission measurements was proven. The investigation provided new insights into the contribution from the anoxic zones versus the aerobic zones of biological WRRF tanks and proved the unsuitability of the use of a single EF for the three WRRFs. Dedicated campaigns for N2O emissions assessment are to be advised. However, similarities in the EF magnitude can be found considering treatment strategy and influent water composition

    Auxin controls gravitropic setpoint angle in higher plant lateral branches.

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    Lateral branches in higher plants are often maintained at specific angles with respect to gravity, a quantity known as the gravitropic setpoint angle (GSA) [1]. Despite the importance of GSA control as a fundamental determinant of plant form, the mechanisms underlying gravity-dependent angled growth are not known. Here we address the central questions of how stable isotropic growth of a branch at a nonvertical angle is maintained and of how the value of that angle is set. We show that nonvertical lateral root and shoot branches are distinguished from the primary axis by the existence of an auxin-dependent antigravitropic offset mechanism that operates in tension with gravitropic response to generate angled isotropic growth. Further, we show that the GSA of lateral roots and shoots is dependent upon the magnitude of the antigravitropic offset component. Finally, we show that auxin specifies GSA values dynamically throughout development by regulating the magnitude of the antigravitropic offset component via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent auxin signaling within the gravity-sensing cells of the root and shoot. The involvement of auxin in controlling GSA is yet another example of auxin's remarkable capacity to self-organize in development [2] and provides a conceptual framework for understanding the specification of GSA throughout nature

    A combinatorial TIR1/AFB–Aux/IAA co-receptor system for differential sensing of auxin

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    The plant hormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Auxin acts by binding the F-box protein transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) and promotes the degradation of the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressors. Here we show that efficient auxin binding requires assembly of an auxin co-receptor complex consisting of TIR1 and an Aux/IAA protein. Heterologous experiments in yeast and quantitative IAA binding assays using purified proteins showed that different combinations of TIR1 and Aux/IAA proteins form co-receptor complexes with a wide range of auxin-binding affinities. Auxin affinity seems to be largely determined by the Aux/IAA. As there are 6 TIR1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX proteins (AFBs) and 29 Aux/IAA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, combinatorial interactions may result in many co-receptors with distinct auxin-sensing properties. We also demonstrate that the AFB5–Aux/IAA co-receptor selectively binds the auxinic herbicide picloram. This co-receptor system broadens the effective concentration range of the hormone and may contribute to the complexity of auxin response
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