150 research outputs found

    Towards large r from [p,q]-inflation

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    The recent discovery of B-mode polarizations in the CMB by the BICEP2 collaboration motivates the study of large-field inflation models which can naturally lead to significant tensor-to-scalar ratios. A class of such models in string theory are axion monodromy models, where the shift symmetry of an axion is broken by some branes. In type IIB string theory such models so far utilized NS5 branes which lead to a linear potential with an induced tensor-to-scalar ratio of r∌0.07r \sim 0.07. In this short note we study a modification of the scenario to include [p,q] 7-branes and show that this leads to an enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r∌0.14r \sim 0.14. Unlike 5-branes, 7-branes are in-principle compatible with supersymmetry, however we find that an implementation of the inflationary scenario requires an explicit breaking of supersymmetry by the 7-branes during inflation. This leads to similar challenges as in 5-brane models. We discuss the relation to high-scale supersymmetry breaking after inflation.Comment: 8 pp; v2: references added, typos correcte

    Hidden Selection Rules, M5-instantons and Fluxes in F-theory

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    We introduce a new approach to investigate the selection rules governing the contributions of fluxed M5-instantons to the F-theory four-dimensional effective action, with emphasis on the generation of charged matter F-terms. The structure of such couplings is unraveled by exploiting the perturbative and non-perturbative homological relations, introduced in our companion paper arXiv:1506.06764, which encode the interplay between the self-dual 3-form flux on the M5-brane, the background 4-form flux and certain fibral curves. The latter are wrapped by time-like M2-branes representing matter insertions in the instanton path integral. In particular, we clarify how fluxed M5-instantons detect the presence of geometrically massive U(1)U(1)s which are responsible for `hidden' selection rules. We discuss how for non-generic embeddings the M5-instanton can probe `locally massless' U(1)U(1) symmetries if the rank of its Mordell-Weil group is enhanced compared to that of the bulk. As a phenomenological off-spring we propose a new type of non-perturbative corrections to Yukawa couplings which may change the rank of the Yukawa matrix. Along the way, we also gain new insights into the structure of massive U(1)U(1) gauge fluxes in the stable degeneration limit.Comment: 42 pages; v2: references adde

    Non-perturbative selection rules in F-theory

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    We discuss the structure of charged matter couplings in 4-dimensional F-theory compactifications. Charged matter is known to arise from M2-branes wrapping fibral curves on an elliptic or genus-one fibration Y. If a set of fibral curves satisfies a homological relation in the fibre homology, a coupling involving the states can arise without exponential volume suppression due to a splitting and joining of the M2-branes. If the fibral curves only sum to zero in the integral homology of the full fibration, no such coupling is possible. In this case an M2-instanton wrapping a 3-chain bounded by the fibral matter curves can induce a D-term which is volume suppressed. We elucidate the consequences of this pattern for the appearance of massive U(1) symmetries in F-theory and analyse the structure of discrete selection rules in the coupling sector. The weakly coupled analogue of said M2-instantons is worked out to be given by D1-F1 instantons. The generation of an exponentially suppressed F-term requires the formation of half-BPS bound states of M2 and M5-instantons. This effect and its description in terms of fluxed M5-instantons is discussed in a companion paper.Comment: 49 pages, 9 figures; v2: references adde

    Swampland Bounds on the Abelian Gauge Sector

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    We derive bounds on the number of abelian gauge group factors in six-dimensional gravitational theories with minimal supersymmetry and in their F-theoretic realisations. These bounds follow by requiring consistency of certain BPS strings in the spectrum of the theory, as recently proposed in the literature. Under certain assumptions this approach constrains the number of abelian gauge group factors in six-dimensional supergravity theories with at least one tensor multiplet to be N≀20N \leq 20 (or N≀22N \leq 22 in absence of charged matter). For any geometric F-theory realisation with at least one tensor multiplet we establish the bound N≀16N \leq 16 by demanding unitarity of a heterotic solitonic string which exists even in absence of a perturbative heterotic dual. This result extends to four-dimensional F-theory vacua on any blowup of a rational fibration. Our findings lead to universal bounds on the rank of the Mordell-Weil group of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds.Comment: 10 pages, 2-column forma

    F-theory and 2d (0,2) Theories

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    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.Comment: 124 pages, 5 figures, v2: ref added, v3: typos corrected, discussion of interactions extended, v4: updated section 12, v5: typos corrected and refs adde

    Heterotic GUT and Standard Model Vacua from simply connected Calabi-Yau Manifolds

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    We consider four-dimensional supersymmetric compactifications of the E8 x E8 heterotic string on Calabi-Yau manifolds endowed with vector bundles with structure group SU(N) x U(1) and five-branes. After evaluating the Green-Schwarz mechanism and deriving the generalized Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau condition including the five-brane moduli, we show that this construction can give rise to GUT models containing U(1) factors like flipped SU(5) or directly the Standard Model even on simply connected Calabi-Yau manifolds. Concrete realizations of three-generation models on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds are presented. They exhibit the most attractive features of flipped SU(5) models such as doublet-triplet splitting and proton stability. In contrast to conventional GUT string models, the tree level relations among the Standard Model gauge couplings at the GUT scale are changed.Comment: 46 pages, 2 figures, 6 tables; v2: references added, typos corrected; v3: typos corrected, final version published in Nucl.Phys.

    Algebraic Cycles and Local Anomalies in F-Theory

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    We introduce a set of identities in the cohomology ring of elliptic fibrations which are equivalent to the cancellation of gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in F-theory compactifications to four and six dimensions. The identities consist in (co)homological relations between complex codimension-two cycles. The same set of relations, once evaluated on elliptic Calabi-Yau three-folds and four-folds, is shown to universally govern the structure of anomalies and their Green-Schwarz cancellation in six- and four-dimensional F-theory vacua, respectively. We furthermore conjecture that these relations hold not only within the cohomology ring, but even at the level of the Chow ring, i.e. as relations among codimension-two cycles modulo rational equivalence. We verify this conjecture in non-trivial examples with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups factors. Apart from governing the structure of local anomalies, the identities in the Chow ring relate different types of gauge backgrounds on elliptically fibred Calabi-Yau four-folds.Comment: 45 page

    (Non-)BPS bound states and D-brane instantons

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    We study non-perturbative effects in four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric orientifold compactifications due to D-brane instantons which are generically not invariant under the orientifold projection. We show that they can yield superpotential contributions via a multi-instanton process at threshold. Some constituents of this configuration form bound states away from the wall of marginal stability which can decay in other regions of moduli space. A microscopic analysis reveals how contributions to the superpotential are possible when new BPS states compensate for their decay. We study this concretely for D2-brane instantons along decaying special Lagrangians in Type IIA and for D5-branes instantons carrying holomorphic bundles in Type I theory.Comment: 39 pages, 4 tables, 2 figures; v2: Equ. (20) corrected, related discussion adjusted, 1 reference added; v3: JHEP version with more refs adde