130 research outputs found

    Rapid non-adiabatic loading in an optical lattice

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    We present a scheme for non-adiabatically loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into the ground state of a one dimensional optical lattice within a few tens of microseconds typically, i.e. in less than half the Talbot period. This technique of coherent control is based on sequences of pulsed perturbations and experimental results demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. As the loading process is much shorter than the traditional adiabatic loading timescale, this method may find many applications.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Exploring multi-band excitations of interacting Bose gases in a 1D optical lattice by coherent scattering

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    We use a coherent Bragg diffraction method to impart an external momentum to ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. This method is based on the application of a single light pulse, with conditions where scattering of photons can be resonantly amplified by the atomic density grating. An oscillatory behavior of the momentum distribution resulting from the time evolution in the lattice potential is then observed. By measuring the oscillating frequencies, we extract multi-band energy structures of single-particle excitations with zero pseudo-momentum transfer for a wide range of lattice depths. The excitation energy structures reveal the interaction effect through the whole range of lattice depth.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Boron-Made N2: Realization of a B≡B Triple Bond in the B2Al3− Cluster

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    Until now, all B≡B triple bonds have been achieved by adopting two ligands in the L→B≡B←L manner. Herein, we report an alternative route of designing the B≡B bonds based on the assumption that by acquiring two extra electrons, an element with the atomic number Z can have properties similar to those of the element with the atomic number Z+2. Specifically, we show that due to the electron donation from Al to B, the negatively charged B≡B kernel in the B2Al3− cluster mimics a triple N≡N bond. Comprehensive computational searches reveal that the global minimum structure of B2Al3− exhibits a direct B–B distance of 1.553 Å, and its calculated electron vertical detachment energies are in excellent agreement with the corresponding values of the experimental photoelectron spectrum. Chemical bonding analysis revealed one σ and two π bonds between the two B atoms, thus confirming a classical textbook B≡B triple bond, similar to that of N2

    The KLF4–p62 axis prevents vascular endothelial cell injury via the mTOR/S6K pathway and autophagy in diabetic kidney disease

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    Introduction: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a complication of systemic diabetic microangiopathy, which has a high risk of developing into end-stage renal disease and death. This study explored the mechanism underlying autophagy in DKD vascular endothelial cell injury. Material and methods: DKD and vascular endothelial cell injury models were established using Sprague Dawley rats and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs overexpressing Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) were constructed by transient transfection of plasmids. Biochemical determination of urinary protein and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and creatinine (Scr) levels was performed. Renal pathology was observed by periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) staining. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to analyse the growth and apoptosis of HUVECs. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expression was observed by immunofluorescence (IF). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using flow cytometry. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), KLF4, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of KLF4, p62 protein, and LC3 was analysed using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). S6 kinase (S6K), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p-S6K), Beclin1, ATG5, LC3, p62, Caspase-3, mammalian target of rapamycine (mTOR), and phsophorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) expressions were detected by western blotting. Results: PAS-positive substances (polysaccharide and glycogen) and S6K protein levels increased, and LC3 protein expression decreased in DKD rats. The levels of urinary protein, BUN, and Scr increased, and KLF4 decreased in DKD rats. High glucose (HG) levels decreased the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HUVECs. The expression of ROS, TNF-α, MCP-1, and p62 increased, while the expression of SOD, KLF4, Beclin1, ATG5, and LC3 decreased in HG-induced HUVECs. KLF4 overexpression significantly increased Beclin1, ATG5, and LC3 protein expression and decreased p62 protein expression compared to the oe-NC group in HG-induced HUVECs. KLF4 overexpression inhibits the expression of Caspase-3, p-mTOR, and p-S6K in HG-induced HUVECs. Conclusions: KLF4–p62 axis improved vascular endothelial cell injury by regulating inflammation and the mTOR/S6K pathway in DKD

    High Density Lipoprotein Protects Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species

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    The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI) appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL) reverses cholesterol transport and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. We, therefore, investigated whether HDL could protect MSCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. MSCs derived from the bone marrow of rats were pre-incubated with or without HDL, and then were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro, or were transplanted into experimentally infarcted hearts of rats in vivo. Pre-incubation of MSCs with HDL increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic indices and resulted in parallel decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison with control MSCs. Each of the beneficial effects of HDL on MSCs was attenuated by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Preconditioning with HDL resulted in higher MSC survival rates, improved cardiac remodeling and better myocardial function than in the MSC control group. Collectively, these results suggest that HDL may protect against H2O2-induced apoptosis in MSCs through activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway, and by suppressing the production of ROS

    A Glimpse of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome from Comparative Genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese Isolates

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    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different Chinese SS2 strains was undertaken. Comparative genomics accompanied by several lines of experiments, including experimental animal infection, PCR assay, and expression analysis, were utilized to further dissect a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI). Here we show, for the first time, a novel molecular insight into Chinese isolates of highly invasive SS2, which caused two large-scale human STSS outbreaks in China. A candidate PAI of ∼89 kb in length, which is designated 89K and specific for Chinese SS2 virulent isolates, was investigated at the genomic level. It shares the universal properties of PAIs such as distinct GC content, consistent with its pivotal role in STSS and high virulence. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first PAI candidate from S. suis worldwide. Our finding thus sheds light on STSS triggered by SS2 at the genomic level, facilitates further understanding of its pathogenesis and points to directions of development on some effective strategies to combat highly pathogenic SS2 infections