309 research outputs found

    Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays versus weekend days: a multi-country analysis

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    PURPOSE The Structured Days Hypothesis (SDH) posits that children's behaviors associated with obesity - such as physical activity - are more favorable on days that contain more 'structure' (i.e., a pre-planned, segmented, and adult-supervised environment) such as school weekdays, compared to days with less structure, such as weekend days. The purpose of this study was to compare children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels on weekdays versus weekend days using a large, multi-country, accelerometer-measured physical activity dataset. METHODS Data were received from the International Children's Accelerometer Database (ICAD) July 2019. The ICAD inclusion criteria for a valid day of wear, only non-intervention data (e.g., baseline intervention data), children with at least 1 weekday and 1 weekend day, and ICAD studies with data collected exclusively during school months, were included for analyses. Mixed effects models accounting for the nested nature of the data (i.e., days within children) assessed MVPA minutes per day (min/day MVPA) differences between weekdays and weekend days by region/country, adjusted for age, sex, and total wear time. Separate meta-analytical models explored differences by age and country/region for sex and child weight-status. RESULTS/FINDINGS Valid data from 15 studies representing 5794 children (61% female, 10.7 ± 2.1 yrs., 24% with overweight/obesity) and 35,263 days of valid accelerometer data from 5 distinct countries/regions were used. Boys and girls accumulated 12.6 min/day (95% CI: 9.0, 16.2) and 9.4 min/day (95% CI: 7.2, 11.6) more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively. Children from mainland Europe had the largest differences (17.1 min/day more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, 95% CI: 15.3, 19.0) compared to the other countries/regions. Children who were classified as overweight/obese or normal weight/underweight accumulated 9.5 min/day (95% CI: 6.9, 12.2) and 10.9 min/day (95% CI: 8.3, 13.5) of additional MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Children from multiple countries/regions accumulated significantly more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days during school months. This finding aligns with the SDH and warrants future intervention studies to prioritize less-structured days, such as weekend days, and to consider providing opportunities for all children to access additional opportunities to be active

    Validity and Wearability of Consumer-based Fitness Trackers in Free-living Children

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 12(5): 471-482, 2019. Over the past decade wearable fitness trackers (WFTs) have grown in popularity with more recent versions able to capture the pulse rate noninvasively on the wrist of the wearer. Most of evidence on the validity of WFTs have explored adults in clinical settings. Thus, the purpose of this study is to 1) evaluate the validity of a wrist-placed WFT in determining heart rate, and 2) examine the wear compliance of a wrist-placed WFT, in children in free-living settings. In study 1, 19 children (5-12yrs) wore a Fitbit Charge HR© and a Polar chest strap heart rate (HR) monitor for 2 hours while performing sedentary-to-vigorous activities at a holiday camp in December 2016. In study 2, 20 children with mild developmental disabilities (8-13yrs) were asked to wear a Fitbit Alta HR© during summer 2017. In study 1, mean absolute percent difference between the WFT HR and criterion was 6.9%. Overall, \u3e75% of WFT HRs were within 5-10% of the criterion. Bland Altman plots indicated a moderate-to-high level of agreement between the WFT and criterion (mean difference 4.1%; Limits of Agreement 26.8, -18.5%). In study 2, participants had the device in their possession for 43 days (SD±14, range 14 – 56 days) and wore it on 67% of those days (range: 20 – 96%) for at least 10 hours/day. Preliminary evidence suggests that WFTs can provide comparable HR estimates to a criterion field-based measure and children can wear WFTs for extended monitoring periods in free-living settings

    Intervention leads to improvements in the nutrient profile of snacks served in afterschool programs: a group randomized controlled trial

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    Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI -114 to -19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 μg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (-5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits

    Statewide Dissemination and Implementation of Physical Activity Standards in Afterschool Programs: Two-Year Results

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    Background: In 2015, YMCA afterschool programs (ASPs) across South Carolina, USA pledged to achieve the YMCA physical activity standard calling for all children to accumulate 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while attending their ASPs. This study presents the final two-year outcomes from the dissemination and implementation efforts associated with achieving this MVPA standard. Methods: Twenty ASPs were sampled from all South Carolina YMCA-operated ASPs (N = 97) and visited at baseline (2015) and first (2016) and second year (2017) follow-up. All ASPs were provided training to increase MVPA during the program by extending the scheduled time for activity opportunities and modifying commonly played games to increase MVPA. The RE-AIM framework was used to evaluate the statewide intervention. Accelerometer-derived MVPA was the primary outcome. Intent-to-treat (ITT) models were conducted summer 2017. Programs were also classified, based on changes in MVPA from 2015 to 2016 and 2016–2017, into one of three categories: gain, maintain, or lost. Implementation, within the three groups, was evaluated via direct observation and document review. Results: Adoption during the first year was 45% of staff attending training, with this increasing to 67% of staff during the second year. ITT models indicated no increase in the odds of accumulating 30 min of MVPA after the first year for either boys (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95CI 0.86–1.31) or girls (OR 1.14, 95CI 0.87–1.50), whereas an increase in the odds was observed during the second year for boys (OR 1.31, 95CI 1.04–1.64) and girls (OR 1.50 95CI 1.01–1.80). Programs that lost MVPA (avg. − 5 to − 7.5 min/d MVPA) elected to modify their program in a greater number of non-supportive ways (e.g., reduce time for activity opportunities, less time spent outdoors), whereas ASPs that gained MVPA (avg. + 5.5 to + 10.1 min MVPA) elected to modify their program in more supportive ways. Conclusions: The statewide study demonstrated minimal improvements in overall MVPA. However, child MVPA was dramatically influenced by ASPs who elected to modify their daily program in more supportive than non-supportive ways, with no one program modifying their program consistently across the multi-year initiative. These findings have important implications for organizations seeking to achieve the MVPA standard

    Impact of community-based participatory initiative on children\u27s pedometer-determined physical activity

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    Abstract of poster that presented at 2013 AAHPERD National Convention & Exposition, Charlotte, NC , 23-27 April 2013

    Physical activity outcomes in afterschool programs: A group randomized controlled trial

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    Afterschool programs (ASPs) across the US are working towards achieving the standard of all children accumulating 30minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during program time. This study describes the two-year impact of an intervention designed to assist ASPs meeting the 30min/d MVPA standard

    Whole-of-school physical activity implementation in the context of the Dubai Fitness Challenge

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    Introduction: Physical activity (PA) promotion among school-aged youth is a global health priority. Recommendations for such promotion include implementing whole-of-school approaches that maximize resources across the school environment. This study examined schools’ participation in an annual, government-led, and emirate-wide initiative in Dubai, called the Dubai Fitness Challenge, in which the goal is to accrue 30 minutes of PA every day for 30 days (as such, the initiative is colloquially referred to as “Dubai 30x30”). Methods: A mixed-methods design was employed for this study. Three schools were recruited using convenience sampling. Participants were 18 physical education teachers, 20 classroom teachers, 2 principals and 45 students. Data sources included surveys, focus groups, and interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logistic regression, and open and axial coding to develop themes. Results: School staff reported that most Dubai 30x30 activities were provided in physical education, at break times during school, and before and after school. Students reported that they mainly participated in Dubai 30x30 activities during physical education and occasionally participated in activities after school and on weekends. During school, students were more likely to reach higher PA intensity levels when they were in contexts other than the regular classroom setting. Among school staff, physical education teachers were most involved and classroom teachers were least involved in promoting Dubai 30x30. Parent engagement was high. Staff perceived that Dubai 30x30 brought the community together, but physical education teachers also indicated there was a lack of implementation guidance and they felt burdened. Participants believed Dubai 30x30 increased PA participation and helped to promote their schools. Discussion: This study provides an initial glimpse into schools’ participation in Dubai 30x30 and suggests that a whole-of-school PA lens is useful in gleaning information that could help to increase and optimize PA opportunities for students

    12-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor Improves Functions of Cytokine-Treated Human Islets and Type 2 Diabetic Islets

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    Context: The 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway produces proinflammatory metabolites, and its activation is implicated in islet inflammation associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objectives: We aimed to test the efficacy of ML355, a highly selective, small molecule inhibitor of 12-LO, for the preservation of islet function. Design: Human islets from nondiabetic donors were incubated with a mixture of tumor necrosis factor α , interluekin-1β, and interferon-γ to model islet inflammation. Cytokine-treated islets and human islets from T2D donors were incubated in the presence and absence of ML355. Setting: In vitro study. Participants: Human islets from organ donors aged >20 years of both sexes and any race were used. T2D status was defined from either medical history or most recent hemoglobin A1c value >6.5%. Intervention: Glucose stimulation. Main Outcome Measures: Static and dynamic insulin secretion and oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Results: ML355 prevented the reduction of insulin secretion and OCR in cytokine-treated human islets and improved both parameters in human islets from T2D donors. Conclusions: ML355 was efficacious in improving human islet function after cytokine treatment and in T2D islets in vitro. The study suggests that the blockade of the 12-LO pathway may serve as a target for both form of diabetes and provides the basis for further study of this small molecule inhibitor in vivo

    Association of environment and policy characteristics on children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and time spent sedentary in afterschool programs

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    Afterschool programs (ASPs) are an important setting in which to promote children’s physical activity. This study examines the association of environmental and policy characteristics on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior of children attending ASPs