147 research outputs found

### A users guide for A344: A program using a finite difference method to analyze transonic flow over oscillating airfoils

The design and usage of a pilot program for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating airfoils in transonic flow are described. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equations for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, was required for input. The unsteady equation, as solved, is linear with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion was assumed, time was not a variable. The numerical solution was obtained through a finite difference formulation and either a line relaxation or an out of core direct solution method

### The practical application of a finite difference method for analyzing transonic flow over oscillating airfoils and wings

Separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady equations for small disturbances was performed. The steady velocity potential was obtained first from the well known nonlinear equation for steady transonic flow. The unsteady velocity potential was then obtained from a linear differential equation in complex form with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion is assumed, the unsteady equation is independent of time. The results of an investigation into the relaxation-solution-instability problem was discussed. Concepts examined include variations in outer boundary conditions, a coordinate transformation so that the boundary condition at infinity may be applied to the outer boundaries of the finite difference region, and overlapping subregions. The general conclusion was that only a full direct solution in which all unknowns are obtained at the same time will avoid the solution instabilities of relaxation. An analysis of the one-dimensional form of the unsteady transonic equation was studied to evaluate errors between exact and finite difference solutions. Pressure distributions were presented for a low-aspect-ratio clipped delta wing at Mach number of 0.9 and for a moderate-aspect-ratio rectangular wing at a Mach number of 0.875

### Computation of the transonic perturbation flow fields around two- and three-dimensional oscillating wings

Analytical and empirical studies of a finite difference method for the solution of the transonic flow about an harmonically oscillating wing are presented along with a discussion of the development of a pilot program for three-dimensional flow. In addition, some two- and three-dimensional examples are presented

### Further investigation of a finite difference procedure for analyzing the transonic flow about harmonically oscillating airfoils and wings

Analytical and empirical studies of a finite difference method for the solution of the transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings and airfoils are presented. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady equations for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential is obtained first from the well-known nonlinear equation for steady transonic flow. The unsteady velocity potential is then obtained from a linear differential equation in complex form with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion is assumed, the unsteady equation is independent of time. An out-of-core direct solution procedure was developed and applied to two-dimensional sections. Results are presented for a section of vanishing thickness in subsonic flow and an NACA 64A006 airfoil in supersonic flow. Good correlation is obtained in the first case at values of Mach number and reduced frequency of direct interest in flutter analyses. Reasonable results are obtained in the second case. Comparisons of two-dimensional finite difference solutions with exact analytic solutions indicate that the accuracy of the difference solution is dependent on the boundary conditions used on the outer boundaries. Homogeneous boundary conditions on the mesh edges that yield complex eigenvalues give the most accurate finite difference solutions. The plane outgoing wave boundary conditions meet these requirements

### A user's guide for V174, a program using a finite difference method to analyze transonic flow over oscillating wings

The design and usage of a pilot program using a finite difference method for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating wings in transonic flow are discussed. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, is required for input. The unsteady differential equation is linear, complex in form with spatially varying coefficients. Because sinusoidal motion is assumed, time is not a variable. The numerical solution is obtained through a finite difference formulation and a line relaxation solution method

### Popular attitudes to memory, the body, and social identity : the rise of external commemoration in Britain, Ireland, and New England

A comparative analysis of samples of external memorials from burial grounds in Britain, Ireland and New England reveals a widespread pattern of change in monument style and content, and exponential growth in the number of permanent memorials from the 18th century onwards. Although manifested in regionally distinctive styles on which most academic attention has so far been directed, the expansion reflects global changes in social relationships and concepts of memory and the body. An archaeological perspective reveals the importance of external memorials in articulating these changing attitudes in a world of increasing material consumption

### Tetrahedral mesh improvement by shell transformation

Existing flips for tetrahedral meshes simply make a selection from a few possible configurations within a single shell (i.e., a polyhedron that can be filled up with a mesh composed of a set of elements that meet each other at one edge), and their effectiveness is usually confined. A new topological operation for tetrahedral meshes named shell transformation is proposed. Its recursive callings execute a sequence of shell transformations on neighboring shells, acting like composite edge removal transformations. Such topological transformations are able to perform on a much larger element set than that of a single flip, thereby leading the way towards a better local optimum solution. Hence, a new mesh improvement algorithm is developed by combining this recursive scheme with other schemes, including smoothing, point insertion and point suppression. Numerical experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm can well balance some stringent and yet sometimes even conflict requirements of mesh improvement, i.e., resulting in high-quality meshes and reducing computing time at the same time. Therefore, it can be used for mesh quality improvement tasks involving millions of elements, in which it is essential not only to generate high-quality meshes, but also to reduce total computational time for mesh improvement

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### Plutonium(IV) Sorption during Ferrihydrite Nanoparticle Formation

Understanding interactions between iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanoparticles and plutonium is essential to underpin technology to treat radioactive effluents, in cleanup of land contaminated with radionuclides, and to ensure the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. These interactions include a range of adsorption, precipitation, and incorporation processes. Here, we explore the mechanisms of plutonium sequestration during ferrihydrite precipitation from an acidic solution. The initial 1 M HNO3 solution with Fe(III)((aq)) and Pu-242(IV)((aq)) underwent controlled hydrolysis via the addition of NaOH to pH 9. The majority of Fe(III)((aq)) and Pu(IV)((aq)) was removed from solution between pH 2 and 3 during ferrihydrite formation. Analysis of Pu-ferrihydrite by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that Pu(IV) formed an inner-sphere tetradentate complex on the ferrihydrite surface, with minor amounts of PuO2 present. Best fits to the EXAFS data collected from Pu-ferrihydrite samples aged for 2 and 6 months showed no statistically significant change in the Pu(IV)-Fe oxyhydroxide surface complex despite the ferrihydrite undergoing extensive recrystallization to hematite. This suggests the Pu remains strongly sorbed to the iron (oxyhydr)oxide surface and could be retained over extended time periods.Peer reviewe

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### Operando spectroscopy study of the carbon dioxide electro-reduction by iron species on nitrogen-doped carbon

The carbonâ€“carbon coupling via electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide represents the biggest challenge for using this route as platform for chemicals synthesis. Here we show that nanostructured iron (III) oxyhydroxide on nitrogen-doped carbon enables high Faraday efficiency (97.4%) and selectivity to acetic acid (61%) at very-low potential (âˆ’0.5 V vs silver/silver chloride). Using a combination of electron microscopy, operando X-ray spectroscopy techniques and density functional theory simulations, we correlate the activity to acetic acid at this potential to the formation of nitrogen-coordinated iron (II) sites as single atoms or
polyatomic species at the interface between iron oxyhydroxide and the nitrogen-doped carbon. The evolution of hydrogen is correlated to the formation of metallic iron and observed as dominant reaction path over iron oxyhydroxide on oxygen-doped carbon in the overall range of negative potential investigated, whereas over iron oxyhydroxide on nitrogen-doped carbon it becomes important only at more negative potentials

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