105 research outputs found

    Qudit Colour Codes and Gauge Colour Codes in All Spatial Dimensions

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    Two-level quantum systems, qubits, are not the only basis for quantum computation. Advantages exist in using qudits, d-level quantum systems, as the basic carrier of quantum information. We show that color codes, a class of topological quantum codes with remarkable transversality properties, can be generalized to the qudit paradigm. In recent developments it was found that in three spatial dimensions a qubit color code can support a transversal non-Clifford gate, and that in higher spatial dimensions additional non-Clifford gates can be found, saturating Bravyi and K\"onig's bound [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)]. Furthermore, by using gauge fixing techniques, an effective set of Clifford gates can be achieved, removing the need for state distillation. We show that the qudit color code can support the qudit analogues of these gates, and show that in higher spatial dimensions a color code can support a phase gate from higher levels of the Clifford hierarchy which can be proven to saturate Bravyi and K\"onig's bound in all but a finite number of special cases. The methodology used is a generalisation of Bravyi and Haah's method of triorthogonal matrices [Phys. Rev. A 86 052329 (2012)], which may be of independent interest. For completeness, we show explicitly that the qudit color codes generalize to gauge color codes, and share the many of the favorable properties of their qubit counterparts.Comment: Authors' final cop

    Search for the rare decays B0J/ψγB^{0}\to J/\psi \gamma and Bs0J/ψγB^{0}_{s} \to J/\psi \gamma

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    A search for the rare decay of a B0B^{0} or Bs0B^{0}_{s} meson into the final state J/ψγJ/\psi\gamma is performed, using data collected by the LHCb experiment in pppp collisions at s=7\sqrt{s}=7 and 88 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb1^{-1}. The observed number of signal candidates is consistent with a background-only hypothesis. Branching fraction values larger than 1.7×1061.7\times 10^{-6} for the B0J/ψγB^{0}\to J/\psi\gamma decay mode are excluded at 90% confidence level. For the Bs0J/ψγB^{0}_{s}\to J/\psi\gamma decay mode, branching fraction values larger than 7.4×1067.4\times 10^{-6} are excluded at 90% confidence level, this is the first branching fraction limit for this decay.Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2015-044.htm

    Evidence for the strangeness-changing weak decay ΞbΛb0π\Xi_b^-\to\Lambda_b^0\pi^-

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    Using a pppp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0~fb1^{-1}, collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay ΞbΛb0π\Xi_b^-\to\Lambda_b^0\pi^-. No bb hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be fΞbfΛb0B(ΞbΛb0π)=(5.7±1.80.9+0.8)×104{{f_{\Xi_b^-}}\over{f_{\Lambda_b^0}}}{\cal{B}}(\Xi_b^-\to\Lambda_b^0\pi^-) = (5.7\pm1.8^{+0.8}_{-0.9})\times10^{-4}, where fΞbf_{\Xi_b^-} and fΛb0f_{\Lambda_b^0} are the bΞbb\to\Xi_b^- and bΛb0b\to\Lambda_b^0 fragmentation fractions, and B(ΞbΛb0π){\cal{B}}(\Xi_b^-\to\Lambda_b^0\pi^-) is the branching fraction. Assuming fΞb/fΛb0f_{\Xi_b^-}/f_{\Lambda_b^0} is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B(ΞbΛb0π){\cal{B}}(\Xi_b^-\to\Lambda_b^0\pi^-) would lie in the range from (0.57±0.21)%(0.57\pm0.21)\% to (0.19±0.07)%(0.19\pm0.07)\%.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2015-047.htm

    Study of the production of Λb0\Lambda_b^0 and B0\overline{B}^0 hadrons in pppp collisions and first measurement of the Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^- branching fraction

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    The product of the Λb0\Lambda_b^0 (B0\overline{B}^0) differential production cross-section and the branching fraction of the decay Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^- (B0J/ψK(892)0\overline{B}^0\rightarrow J/\psi\overline{K}^*(892)^0) is measured as a function of the beauty hadron transverse momentum, pTp_{\rm T}, and rapidity, yy. The kinematic region of the measurements is pT<20 GeV/cp_{\rm T}<20~{\rm GeV}/c and 2.0<y<4.52.0<y<4.5. The measurements use a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb13~{\rm fb}^{-1} collected by the LHCb detector in pppp collisions at centre-of-mass energies s=7 TeV\sqrt{s}=7~{\rm TeV} in 2011 and s=8 TeV\sqrt{s}=8~{\rm TeV} in 2012. Based on previous LHCb results of the fragmentation fraction ratio, fΛB0/fdf_{\Lambda_B^0}/f_d, the branching fraction of the decay Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^- is measured to be \begin{equation*} \mathcal{B}(\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-)= (3.17\pm0.04\pm0.07\pm0.34^{+0.45}_{-0.28})\times10^{-4}, \end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, the third is due to the uncertainty on the branching fraction of the decay B0J/ψK(892)0\overline{B}^0\rightarrow J/\psi\overline{K}^*(892)^0, and the fourth is due to the knowledge of fΛb0/fdf_{\Lambda_b^0}/f_d. The sum of the asymmetries in the production and decay between Λb0\Lambda_b^0 and Λb0\overline{\Lambda}_b^0 is also measured as a function of pTp_{\rm T} and yy. The previously published branching fraction of Λb0J/ψpπ\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi p\pi^-, relative to that of Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-, is updated. The branching fractions of Λb0Pc+(J/ψp)K\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow P_c^+(\rightarrow J/\psi p)K^- are determined.Comment: 29 pages, 19figures. All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2015-032.htm

    Measurements of long-range near-side angular correlations in sNN=5\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}}=5TeV proton-lead collisions in the forward region

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    Two-particle angular correlations are studied in proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sNN=5\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}}=5TeV, collected with the LHCb detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on data recorded in two beam configurations, in which either the direction of the proton or that of the lead ion is analysed. The correlations are measured in the laboratory system as a function of relative pseudorapidity, Δη\Delta\eta, and relative azimuthal angle, Δϕ\Delta\phi, for events in different classes of event activity and for different bins of particle transverse momentum. In high-activity events a long-range correlation on the near side, Δϕ0\Delta\phi \approx 0, is observed in the pseudorapidity range 2.0<η<4.92.0<\eta<4.9. This measurement of long-range correlations on the near side in proton-lead collisions extends previous observations into the forward region up to η=4.9\eta=4.9. The correlation increases with growing event activity and is found to be more pronounced in the direction of the lead beam. However, the correlation in the direction of the lead and proton beams are found to be compatible when comparing events with similar absolute activity in the direction analysed.Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2015-040.htm

    Postoperative outcomes in oesophagectomy with trainee involvement