78 research outputs found

    Production, Discard, and Urban Life at the Early Horizon Center of Caylán, Coastal Peru

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    In this thesis I examine material production, discard, and trash flow at the Early Horizon urban center of Caylán (800 – 1 cal. BC) on the Peruvian North-Central coast. Trash (or garbage, refuse, litter, or waste) is a central source of information for archaeologists examining prehistoric lifeways in Peru. Despite frequent use of trash as a source for radiocarbon samples, cultural material, and dietary evidence, few studies utilize the transportation and concentration of trash to examine human behavioral patterns. The Early Horizon, as a transitional period in Peruvian prehistory, presents an opportunity to test the utility of trash deposits in analyzing early urban lifeways. Research was conducted at Caylán in the lower Nepeña Valley, in the coastal area of the Department of Ancash, Peru. Caylán is interpreted as a large urban center and the focus of an emerging polity during the Early Horizon (900 – 200 BC). Caylán’s architectural core is comprised of a series of walled house compounds built from mortar and stone. Each architectural complex appears centered around a monumental communal plaza, as well as adjacent patios preliminarily interpreted as areas of production and residence. Excavations during the 2009 and 2010 field seasons included 6 excavation areas, 16 test pits, and the clearing of one looter’s pit, which were placed to sample the diversity of architectural structures and associated material remains. Mapping operations provided spatial information to examine the layout of the urban core. I examine the contents of the test units to explore the distribution of trash across different functional contexts at Caylán. I compare spatial contexts, including streets, corridors, plazas, patios, and open-air areas outside the walled compounds, and refuse densities within and between contexts. Results indicate a complex series of behavioral patterns that comprise the production, use, and discard of artifacts and food remains across the city. Manufacture of finished goods occurred in the house compounds, indicating a household economy with little centralized organization. However, refuse accumulation also centers around commonly accessible areas. The utilization of large amounts of trash as infill for episodic rebuilding indicates at least some level of cooperative organization among households. I argue that the material evidence points toward the existence of a household-based economy with competitive, non-specialized production, as well as a centralized leadership complex enough to regulate discard, but not production

    The Strayed Reveller, No. 2

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    The second issue of The Strayed Reveller.https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/reveller/1001/thumbnail.jp

    The Strayed Reveller, No. 3

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    The third issue of The Strayed Revellerhttps://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/reveller/1002/thumbnail.jp

    The Strayed Reveller, No. 1

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    The Strayed Reveller is a literary magazine of stories, songs, poems, essays, reviews and artwork by students at Stephen F. Austin State University. It is published monthly andsponsered by the School of Liberal Arts and Department of English.https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/reveller/1000/thumbnail.jp

    The Strayed Reveller, No. 7

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    The seventh issue of The Strayed Reveller.https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/reveller/1006/thumbnail.jp

    The Strayed Reveller, No. 5

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    The fifth issue of The Strayed Reveller.https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/reveller/1004/thumbnail.jp

    ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure)

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    "The committee elected to focus this document on the prevention of HF and on the diagnosis and management of chronic HF in the adult patient with normal or low LVEF. It specifically did not consider acute HF, which might merit a separate set of guidelines and is addressed in part in the ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (8) and the ACC/AHA 2003 Update of the Guidelines for the Management of Unstable Angina and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (9). We have also excluded HF in children, both because the underlying causes of HF in children differ from those in adults and because none of the controlled trials of treatments for HF have included children. We have not considered the management of HF due to primary valvular disease [see ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease (10)] or congenital malformations, and we have not included recommendations for the treatment of specific myocardial disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, or amyloidosis). These practice guidelines are intended to assist healthcare providers in clinical decision making by describing a range of generally acceptable approaches for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of HF. The guidelines attempt to define practices that meet the needs of most patients under most circumstances. However, the ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be made by the healthcare provider in light of all of the circumstances that are relevant to that patient. These guidelines do not address cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective. The guidelines are not meant to assist policy makers faced with the necessity to make decisions regarding the allocation of finite healthcare resources. In fact, these guidelines assume no resource limitation. They do not provide policy makers with sufficient information to be able to choose wisely between options for resource allocation. The various therapeutic strategies described in this document can be viewed as a checklist to be considered for each patient in an attempt to individualize treatment for an evolving disease process. Every patient is unique, not only in terms of his or her cause and course of HF, but also in terms of his or her personal and cultural approach to the disease. Guidelines can only provide an outline for evidence-based decisions or recommendations for individual care; these guidelines are meant to provide that outline.
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