1,175 research outputs found

    SCANN: Synthesis of Compact and Accurate Neural Networks

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    Deep neural networks (DNNs) have become the driving force behind recent artificial intelligence (AI) research. An important problem with implementing a neural network is the design of its architecture. Typically, such an architecture is obtained manually by exploring its hyperparameter space and kept fixed during training. This approach is time-consuming and inefficient. Another issue is that modern neural networks often contain millions of parameters, whereas many applications and devices require small inference models. However, efforts to migrate DNNs to such devices typically entail a significant loss of classification accuracy. To address these challenges, we propose a two-step neural network synthesis methodology, called DR+SCANN, that combines two complementary approaches to design compact and accurate DNNs. At the core of our framework is the SCANN methodology that uses three basic architecture-changing operations, namely connection growth, neuron growth, and connection pruning, to synthesize feed-forward architectures with arbitrary structure. SCANN encapsulates three synthesis methodologies that apply a repeated grow-and-prune paradigm to three architectural starting points. DR+SCANN combines the SCANN methodology with dataset dimensionality reduction to alleviate the curse of dimensionality. We demonstrate the efficacy of SCANN and DR+SCANN on various image and non-image datasets. We evaluate SCANN on MNIST and ImageNet benchmarks. In addition, we also evaluate the efficacy of using dimensionality reduction alongside SCANN (DR+SCANN) on nine small to medium-size datasets. We also show that our synthesis methodology yields neural networks that are much better at navigating the accuracy vs. energy efficiency space. This would enable neural network-based inference even on Internet-of-Things sensors.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

    Occluded Person Re-identification

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    Person re-identification (re-id) suffers from a serious occlusion problem when applied to crowded public places. In this paper, we propose to retrieve a full-body person image by using a person image with occlusions. This differs significantly from the conventional person re-id problem where it is assumed that person images are detected without any occlusion. We thus call this new problem the occluded person re-identitification. To address this new problem, we propose a novel Attention Framework of Person Body (AFPB) based on deep learning, consisting of 1) an Occlusion Simulator (OS) which automatically generates artificial occlusions for full-body person images, and 2) multi-task losses that force the neural network not only to discriminate a person's identity but also to determine whether a sample is from the occluded data distribution or the full-body data distribution. Experiments on a new occluded person re-id dataset and three existing benchmarks modified to include full-body person images and occluded person images show the superiority of the proposed method.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, IEEE International Conference of Multimedia and Expo 201