2,726 research outputs found

    Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

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    Interaction of very low-frequency primordial(relic) gravitational waves(GWs) to cosmic microwave background(CMB) can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic(EM) response to high-frequency GWs(HFGWs) would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes, and study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.Comment: 22 pages, 6 figures, research articl

    Design and Evaluation of Digital Baseband Converter Sub-channel Delay Compensation Method on Bandwidth Synthesis

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    The effect of sub-channel delay on bandwidth synthesis is investigated to eliminate the “phase step” phenomenon in bandwidth synthesis during the test of CDBE (Chinese Digital Backend). Through formula derivation, we realize that sub-channel delay may cause phase discontinuity between different sub-channels. Theoretical analysis shows that sub-channel delay can induce bandwidth synthesis error in group delay measurement of the linear system. Furthermore, in the differential delay measurement between two stations, bandwidth synthesis error may occur when the LO (Local Oscillator) frequency differences of corresponding sub-channels are not identical. Error-free conditions are discussed under different applications. The phase errors among different sub-channels can be removed manually. However, the most effective way is the compensation of sub-channel delay. A sub-channel delay calculation method based on Modelsim is proposed. The compensation method is detailed. Simulation and field experiments are presented to verify our approach

    Predicting and understanding spatio-temporal dynamics of species recovery : implications for Asian crested ibis Nipponia nippon conservation in China

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    Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31372218) and cofunded by the China Scholarship Council (CSC) and the ITC Research Fund, Enschede, the Netherlands. We thank Shaanxi Hanzhong Crested Ibis National Nature Reserve for sharing the data of nest site locations. We are grateful to Brendan Wintle, Justin Travis and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on a previous version of the manuscript.Peer reviewedPublisher PD