1,695 research outputs found

    Scale Effects, Technical Efficiency and Land Lease in China

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    Using a panel dataset from Zhejiang province in China over the period 1995-2002, we propose a two-step estimation procedure to investigate the links between land lease activity and production efficiency. We find that the output elasticity with respect to land, the scale effect and the technical efficiency are higher for farmers involved in land-lease activities. In addition, technical efficiency and land-lease activity are endogenous, and farmers with higher technical efficiency are more likely to lease more land and adopt advanced technologies to achieve higher profits, which in turn alters the technical efficiency.Land Lease, Land Use Rights, Technical Efficiency, Scale Effect, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Q15, P23, D50,

    The Persistence of Poverty in Rural China: Applying an Ordered Probit and a Hazard Approach

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    The present study investigates the analysis of poverty persistence of Chinese farm households in the well-off Zhejiang province in the southeast. We firstly apply an ordered probit model examining household, farm, and regional characteristics affecting the probability that households are chronically poor. In addition, we apply a hazard approach to identify the risk of falling into and climbing out of poverty. Results indicate that there are increasing chances to climb out of poverty over time, and that the risk of falling into poverty seems to decrease after the household spent some time outside poverty.Poverty persistence, China, rural population, hazard analysis, dynamics, Food Security and Poverty, C23, D1, I32, R29,

    Rational Expectation and Education Rewarding: The Case of Chinese Off-Farm Wage Employment

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    This study establishes a life-cycle model that a representative agent chooses optimal time of education to maximize his/her life earning, which implies that there may exist nonlinear relation between education and earning. Using the data of Chinese off-farm wage employment, we find that the duration of schooling years will increase by 1.7 years with 1 percent increase in rate of return to education. The empirical results also indicate that controversies about return to education might arise from model misspecification without consideration of nonlinearity and sample selection.return to schooling, life-cycle model, rational expectation, China, Labor and Human Capital, I20, J43, Q01,

    The Dynamics of Chinese Rural Households' Participation in Labor Markets

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    The work focuses on the frequency of each possible transition between labor market participation regimes of rural Chinese households. A continuous hazard approach is applied to empirically evaluate factors, as household, farm, and regional characteristics affecting the frequency of transition between labor market participation states. Results suggest that there are frequent changes of labor market participations regimes among the househo lds. Given the change in external conditions and other factor end owments this might indicate that households quickly response in allocating labor in order to equilibrate the resources. Further, we find that there are good chances climbing out of autarky; however the probability to fall in autarky was also remarkable over time.Labor market participation, dynamic analysis, China, hazard model, rural households, Labor and Human Capital, C41, J60, Q12,

    Three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stromal cells and differentiated osteoblasts on human bio-derived bone scaffolds supports active multi-lineage hematopoiesis in vitro: Functional implication of the biomimetic HSC niche.

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    Recent studies have indicated that the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche, consisting of two major crucial components, namely osteoblasts (OBs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is responsible for the fate of HSPCs. Thus, closely mimicking the HSPC niche ex vivo may be an efficient strategy with which to develop new culture strategies to specifically regulate the balance between HSPC self-renewal and proliferation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel HSPC three-dimensional culture system by co-culturing bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs without any cytokines as feeder cells and applying bio-derived bone from human femoral metaphyseal portion as the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the excellent biocompatibility of bio-derived bone with bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that many cytokines, which play key roles in HSPC regulation, were comprehensively secreted, while ELISA revealed that extracellular matrix molecules were also highly expressed. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining proved that our system could be used to supply a long-term culture of HSPCs. Flow cytometric analysis and qPCR of p21 expression demonstrated that our system significantly promoted the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays confirmed that our system has the ability for both the expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HPCs) and the maintenance of a primitive cell subpopulation of HSCs. The severe-combined immunodeficient mouse repopulating cell assay revealed the promoting effects of our system on the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs. In conclusion, our system may be a more comprehensive and balanced system which not only promotes the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, but also maintains primitive HPCs with superior phenotypic and functional attributes

    DMTNet: Dynamic Multi-scale Network for Dual-pixel Images Defocus Deblurring with Transformer

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    Recent works achieve excellent results in defocus deblurring task based on dual-pixel data using convolutional neural network (CNN), while the scarcity of data limits the exploration and attempt of vision transformer in this task. In addition, the existing works use fixed parameters and network architecture to deblur images with different distribution and content information, which also affects the generalization ability of the model. In this paper, we propose a dynamic multi-scale network, named DMTNet, for dual-pixel images defocus deblurring. DMTNet mainly contains two modules: feature extraction module and reconstruction module. The feature extraction module is composed of several vision transformer blocks, which uses its powerful feature extraction capability to obtain richer features and improve the robustness of the model. The reconstruction module is composed of several Dynamic Multi-scale Sub-reconstruction Module (DMSSRM). DMSSRM can restore images by adaptively assigning weights to features from different scales according to the blur distribution and content information of the input images. DMTNet combines the advantages of transformer and CNN, in which the vision transformer improves the performance ceiling of CNN, and the inductive bias of CNN enables transformer to extract more robust features without relying on a large amount of data. DMTNet might be the first attempt to use vision transformer to restore the blurring images to clarity. By combining with CNN, the vision transformer may achieve better performance on small datasets. Experimental results on the popular benchmarks demonstrate that our DMTNet significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods
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