20,702 research outputs found

    Diffuse PeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts

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    The IceCube collaboration recently reported the potential detection of two cascade neutrino events in the energy range 1-10 PeV. We study the possibility that these PeV neutrinos are produced by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), paying special attention to the contribution by untriggered GRBs that elude detection due to their low photon flux. Based on the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and spectral properties of GRBs, we generate, using Monte-Carlo simulation, a GRB sample that reproduce the observed fluence distribution of Fermi/GBM GRBs and an accompanying sample of untriggered GRBs simultaneously. The neutrino flux of every individual GRBs is calculated in the standard internal shock scenario, so that the accumulative flux of the whole samples can be obtained. We find that the neutrino flux in PeV energies produced by untriggered GRBs is about 2 times higher than that produced by the triggered ones. Considering the existing IceCube limit on the neutrino flux of triggered GRBs, we find that the total flux of triggered and untriggered GRBs can reach at most a level of ~10^-9 GeV cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1, which is insufficient to account for the reported two PeV neutrinos. Possible contributions to diffuse neutrinos by low-luminosity GRBs and the earliest population of GRBs are also discussed.Comment: Accepted by ApJ, one more figure added to show the contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux by untriggered GRBs with different luminosity, results and conclusions unchange

    Stability of matrix factorization for collaborative filtering

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    We study the stability vis a vis adversarial noise of matrix factorization algorithm for matrix completion. In particular, our results include: (I) we bound the gap between the solution matrix of the factorization method and the ground truth in terms of root mean square error; (II) we treat the matrix factorization as a subspace fitting problem and analyze the difference between the solution subspace and the ground truth; (III) we analyze the prediction error of individual users based on the subspace stability. We apply these results to the problem of collaborative filtering under manipulator attack, which leads to useful insights and guidelines for collaborative filtering system design.Comment: ICML201

    Graph Connectivity in Noisy Sparse Subspace Clustering

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    Subspace clustering is the problem of clustering data points into a union of low-dimensional linear/affine subspaces. It is the mathematical abstraction of many important problems in computer vision, image processing and machine learning. A line of recent work (4, 19, 24, 20) provided strong theoretical guarantee for sparse subspace clustering (4), the state-of-the-art algorithm for subspace clustering, on both noiseless and noisy data sets. It was shown that under mild conditions, with high probability no two points from different subspaces are clustered together. Such guarantee, however, is not sufficient for the clustering to be correct, due to the notorious "graph connectivity problem" (15). In this paper, we investigate the graph connectivity problem for noisy sparse subspace clustering and show that a simple post-processing procedure is capable of delivering consistent clustering under certain "general position" or "restricted eigenvalue" assumptions. We also show that our condition is almost tight with adversarial noise perturbation by constructing a counter-example. These results provide the first exact clustering guarantee of noisy SSC for subspaces of dimension greater then 3.Comment: 14 pages. To appear in The 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, held at Cadiz, Spain in 201