31 research outputs found

    Distributed Power Allocation with Rate Constraints in Gaussian Parallel Interference Channels

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    This paper considers the minimization of transmit power in Gaussian parallel interference channels, subject to a rate constraint for each user. To derive decentralized solutions that do not require any cooperation among the users, we formulate this power control problem as a (generalized) Nash equilibrium game. We obtain sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence and nonemptiness of the solution set to our problem. Then, to compute the solutions of the game, we propose two distributed algorithms based on the single user waterfilling solution: The \emph{sequential} and the \emph{simultaneous} iterative waterfilling algorithms, wherein the users update their own strategies sequentially and simultaneously, respectively. We derive a unified set of sufficient conditions that guarantee the uniqueness of the solution and global convergence of both algorithms. Our results are applicable to all practical distributed multipoint-to-multipoint interference systems, either wired or wireless, where a quality of service in terms of information rate must be guaranteed for each link.Comment: Paper submitted to IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, February 17, 2007. Revised January 11, 200

    Autophagy Is a Defense Mechanism Inhibiting Invasion and Inflammation During High-Virulent Haemophilus parasuis Infection in PK-15 Cells

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    Bacterial infections activate autophagy and autophagy restricts pathogens such as Haemophilus parasuis through specific mechanisms. Autophagy is associated with the pathogenesis of H. parasuis. However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. Here, we monitored autophagy processes using confocal microscopy, western blot, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found that H. parasuis SH0165 (high-virulent strain) but not HN0001 (non-virulent strain) infection enhanced autophagy flux. The AMPK/mTOR autophagy pathway was required for autophagy initiation and ATG5, Beclin-1, ATG7, and ATG16L1 emerged as important components in the generation of the autophagosome during H. parasuis infection. Moreover, autophagy induced by H. parasuis SH0165 turned to fight against invaded bacteria and inhibit inflammation. Then we further demonstrated that autophagy blocked the production of the cytokines IL-8, CCL4, and CCL5 induced by SH0165 infection through the inhibition of NF-κB, p38, and JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, our findings suggest that autophagy may act as a cellular defense mechanism in response to H. parasuis and provide a new way that autophagy protects the host against H. parasuis infection

    Distributed power allocation with rate constraints in Gaussian parallel interference channels

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    This paper considers the minimization of transmit power in Gaussian parallel interference channels, subject to a rate constraint for each user. To derive decentralized solutions that do not require any cooperation among the users, we formulate this power control problem as a (generalized) Nash equilibrium (NE) game. We obtain sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence and nonemptiness of the solution set to our problem. Then, to compute the solutions of the game, we propose two distributed algorithms based on the single user water-filling solution: The sequential and the simultaneous iterative water-filling algorithms, wherein the users update their own strategies sequentially and simultaneously, respectively. We derive a unified set of sufficient conditions that guarantee the uniqueness of the solution and global convergence of both algorithms. Our results are applicable to all practical distributed multipoint-to-multipoint interference systems, either wired or wireless, where a quality of service in (QoS) terms of information rate must be guaranteed for each link

    Perceptual encoding benefit of visual memorability on visual memory formation

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    Human observers often exhibit remarkable consistency in remembering specific visual details, such as certain face images. This phenomenon is commonly attributed to visual memorability, a collection of stimulus attributes that enhance the long-term retention of visual information. However, the exact contributions of visual memorability to visual memory formation remain elusive as these effects could emerge anywhere from early perceptual encoding to post-perceptual memory consolidation processes. To clarify this, we tested three key predictions from the hypothesis that visual memorability facilitates early perceptual encoding that supports the formation of visual short-term memory (VSTM) and the retention of visual long-term memory (VLTM). First, we examined whether memorability benefits in VSTM encoding manifest early, even within the constraints of a brief stimulus presentation (100–200 ms; Experiment 1). We achieved this by manipulating stimulus presentation duration in a VSTM change detection task using face images with high- or low-memorability while ensuring they were equally familiar to the participants. Second, we assessed whether this early memorability benefit increases the likelihood of VSTM retention, even with post-stimulus masking designed to interrupt post-perceptual VSTM consolidation processes (Experiment 2). Last, we investigated the durability of memorability benefits by manipulating memory retention intervals from seconds to 24 hours (Experiment 3). Across experiments, our data suggest that visual memorability has an early impact on VSTM formation, persisting across variable retention intervals and predicting subsequent VLTM overnight. Combined, these findings highlight that visual memorability enhances visual memory within 100–200 ms following stimulus onset, resulting in robust memory traces resistant to post-perceptual interruption and long-term forgetting

    Strategic inhibition of distractors with visual working memory contents after involuntary attention capture

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    Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding efect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue. Consistent with previous behavioral studies, the results showed that the inhibitory efect occurred only in the high-probability condition, while the guiding efect emerged in the low-probability condition. More importantly, the eye-movement results indicated that in the high-probability condition, once few (even one) distractors with VWM contents were captured at frst, all the remaining distractors with VWM contents would be rejected as a whole. However, in the low-probability condition, attention could be captured by the majority of distractors with VWM contents. These results suggested that the guiding efect of VWM contents on attention is involuntary in the early stage of visual search. After the completion of this involuntary stage, the guiding efect of task-irrelevant VWM contents on attention could be strategically controlled.peerReviewe

    D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, suppresses IL-4 induced macrophage alternative activation and pro-fibrotic TGF-β1 expression

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    Context: We reported that D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) mimetic polypeptide with 18 d-amino acids, suppressed IL-4 induced macrophage alternative activation and TGF-β1 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treated human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). Objective: Macrophage alternative activation, TGF-β1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are intensively involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies demonstrated that Apo A-I resolved established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and D-4F inhibited TGF-β1 induced EMT in alveolar cells. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of D-4F on IL-4 induced macrophage alternative activation and TGF-β1 expression. Materials and methods: THP-1 cells were simulated with PMA (100 ng/mL) for 48 h and treated with medium control, IL-4 (20 ng/mL) alone, or IL-4 (20 ng/mL) in the presence of D-4F (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA evaluations were performed to investigate the subsequent effects of D-4F. Results: Compared to stimulation with IL-4 alone, 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL of D-4F reduced alternative activation by 45.38%, 59.98%, and 60.10%, increased TNF-α mRNA levels by 8%, 11%, and 16% and decreased TGF-β1 mRNA levels by 21%, 37%, and 39%, respectively (all p ≤ 0.05). In addition, TNF-α protein levels increased from 388 pg/mL (IL-4 alone) to 429, 475, and 487 pg/mL (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL D-4F), while TGF-β1 protein levels dropped from 27.01 pg/mL (IL-4 alone) to 19.15, 12.27, and 10.47 pg/mL (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL D-4F). Conclusion: D-4F suppressed IL-4 induced macrophage alternative activation and pro-fibrotic TGF-β1 expression

    Case report: Herbal treatment of neutropenic enterocolitis after chemotherapy for breast cancer

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    In this case report, a 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with severe NE after receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. The patient with breast cancer was treated with a single cycle of docetaxel (140 mg) + epirubicin (130 mg) + cyclophosphamide (0.9 g) chemotherapy. However, the woman presented with symptoms of fatigue and diarrhea 5 days later accompanied with severe neutropenia according to the routine blood test. The computed tomography examination displayed the thickening and swelling of the colorectal wall. After the diagnosis of NE, the woman received antibiotics and supportive treatment, but her symptoms were not improved. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) diagnostic pattern was then designed for the patient. The patient was administered with two CHM decoctions. One decoction contained 24 kinds of herbal materials, and the other one was called pure ginseng decoction. These two decoctions were administered to the patient 2 or 3 times per day to tonify the spleen, nourish Qi and blood, and remove phlegm and damp heat symptoms. After the CHM treatment lasting for 10 days, the symptoms of the patient were improved, and she was discharged. In conclusion, CHM treatment played an indispensable role in curing the woman with chemotherapy-induced NE
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