206 research outputs found

    Efficient Wiener filtering without preconditioning

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    We present a new approach to calculate the Wiener filter solution of general data sets. It is trivial to implement, flexible, numerically absolutely stable, and guaranteed to converge. Most importantly, it does not require an ingenious choice of preconditioner to work well. The method is capable of taking into account inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries. It iteratively builds up the signal reconstruction by means of a messenger field, introduced to mediate between the different preferred bases in which signal and noise properties can be specified most conveniently. Using cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation data as a showcase, we demonstrate the capabilities of our scheme by computing Wiener filtered WMAP7 temperature and polarization maps at full resolution for the first time. We show how the algorithm can be modified to synthesize fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, result in unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with the observations. The algorithm performs well even on simulated CMB maps with Planck resolution and dynamic range.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures. Submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics. Replaced to match published versio

    ARKCoS: Artifact-Suppressed Accelerated Radial Kernel Convolution on the Sphere

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    We describe a hybrid Fourier/direct space convolution algorithm for compact radial (azimuthally symmetric) kernels on the sphere. For high resolution maps covering a large fraction of the sky, our implementation takes advantage of the inexpensive massive parallelism afforded by consumer graphics processing units (GPUs). Applications involve modeling of instrumental beam shapes in terms of compact kernels, computation of fine-scale wavelet transformations, and optimal filtering for the detection of point sources. Our algorithm works for any pixelization where pixels are grouped into isolatitude rings. Even for kernels that are not bandwidth limited, ringing features are completely absent on an ECP grid. We demonstrate that they can be highly suppressed on the popular HEALPix pixelization, for which we develop a freely available implementation of the algorithm. As an example application, we show that running on a high-end consumer graphics card our method speeds up beam convolution for simulations of a characteristic Planck high frequency instrument channel by two orders of magnitude compared to the commonly used HEALPix implementation on one CPU core while maintaining at typical a fractional RMS accuracy of about 1 part in 10^5.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics. Replaced to match published version. Code can be downloaded at https://github.com/elsner/arkco

    Bayesian inference from photometric redshift surveys

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    We show how to enhance the redshift accuracy of surveys consisting of tracers with highly uncertain positions along the line of sight. Photometric surveys with redshift uncertainty delta_z ~ 0.03 can yield final redshift uncertainties of delta_z_f ~ 0.003 in high density regions. This increased redshift precision is achieved by imposing an isotropy and 2-point correlation prior in a Bayesian analysis and is completely independent of the process that estimates the photometric redshift. As a byproduct, the method also infers the three dimensional density field, essentially super-resolving high density regions in redshift space. Our method fully takes into account the survey mask and selection function. It uses a simplified Poissonian picture of galaxy formation, relating preferred locations of galaxies to regions of higher density in the matter field. The method quantifies the remaining uncertainties in the three dimensional density field and the true radial locations of galaxies by generating samples that are constrained by the survey data. The exploration of this high dimensional, non-Gaussian joint posterior is made feasible using multiple-block Metropolis-Hastings sampling. We demonstrate the performance of our implementation on a simulation containing 2.0 x 10^7 galaxies. These results bear out the promise of Bayesian analysis for upcoming photometric large scale structure surveys with tens of millions of galaxies.Comment: 17 pages, 12 figure

    Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys

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    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves over previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate sub samples. The method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal to noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. The method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20 percent effect across large ranges in k-space. In addition, the method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters in advance

    Primordial Non-Gaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background

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    In the last few decades, advances in observational cosmology have given us a standard model of cosmology. We know the content of the universe to within a few percent. With more ambitious experiments on the way, we hope to move beyond the knowledge of what the universe is made of, to why the universe is the way it is. In this review paper we focus on primordial non-Gaussianity as a probe of the physics of the dynamics of the universe at the very earliest moments. We discuss 1) theoretical predictions from inflationary models and their observational consequences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies; 2) CMB--based estimators for constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with an emphasis on bispectrum templates; 3) current constraints on non-Gaussianity and what we can hope to achieve in the near future; and 4) non-primordial sources of non-Gaussianities in the CMB such as bispectrum due to second order effects, three way cross-correlation between primary-lensing-secondary CMB, and possible instrumental effects.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figures; Invited Review for the Journal "Advances in Astronomy"; references adde

    Bayesian inference on the sphere beyond statistical isotropy

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    We present a general method for Bayesian inference of the underlying covariance structure of random fields on a sphere. We employ the Bipolar Spherical Harmonic (BipoSH) representation of general covariance structure on the sphere. We illustrate the efficacy of the method as a principled approach to assess violation of statistical isotropy (SI) in the sky maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations. SI violation in observed CMB maps arise due to known physical effects such as Doppler boost and weak lensing; yet unknown theoretical possibilities like cosmic topology and subtle violations of the cosmological principle, as well as, expected observational artefacts of scanning the sky with a non-circular beam, masking, foreground residuals, anisotropic noise, etc. We explicitly demonstrate the recovery of the input SI violation signals with their full statistics in simulated CMB maps. Our formalism easily adapts to exploring parametric physical models with non-SI covariance, as we illustrate for the inference of the parameters of a Doppler boosted sky map. Our approach promises to provide a robust quantitative evaluation of the evidence for SI violation related anomalies in the CMB sky by estimating the BipoSH spectra along with their complete posterior.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figure
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