3,482 research outputs found

    DISCUSSION OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE FOOD AND FIBER SYSTEM

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    Industrial Organization,

    Economics of Change in Market Structure, Conduct, and Performance The Baking Industry 1947-1958

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    Baking is one of the largest industries in the United States. Its sales, which exceed 4billionannually,rankitthirdamongthefoodprocessingindustries,andthirteenthamongallmanufacturingindustries.Bakeryproductsaccountfornearly4 billion annually, rank it third among the food processing industries, and thirteenth among all manufacturing industries. Bakery products account for nearly 1 out of every $10 spent by American consumers for food. Almost half of the domestic consumption of wheat flour is in the form of bread, rolls, cake, pie, doughnuts, sweet goods, and other perishable bakery products. While this study encompasses the perishable bakery products industry as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, it focuses primarily on wholesale markets for white bread. Since World War II, important changes have occurred in the bread baking industry. A decline in the per capita demand for bread products coupled with changes in technology and costs has affected the relationships between baking companies, their market behavior, and the resulting level of efficiency and price performance. In an industrial economy, the farming, milling, baking, retailing, and consuming functions are integrally related. Changes in the organization and practices in one may induce changes in others. The baking industry occupies a strategic position in this process, and as a result, consumers, farmers, millers, and retailers, as well as bakers themselves, have a vital interest in the way the baking industry performs. Changes in market structure and firm behavior in the baking industry have been the subject of study and concern by several interested individuals and groups. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has followed with increased concern the widening of the market margin and the declining farmer share of consumer bread prices. The Senate Agricultural Committee has completed a study of average cost and returns of bakery operations.The Federal Trade Commission has followed the pricing practices of many baking companies with frequent cease and desist orders. I\u3e The Justice Department, through periodic prosecutions, has kept baking firms aware of the limitation imposed by the antitrust laws. The Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly has studied the impact of discriminatory pricing by large baking companies on small independent bakers.7 The industry has encouraged economic study of the historic development of baking and changes in market organization and practices.s Most recently, the F.T.C. studied buyer concentration and the integration of retail grocery organizations into baking and other food processing industries

    NONMARKET VALUE OF WESTERN VALLEY RANCHLAND USING CONTINGENT VALUATION

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    With the irreversible loss of agricultural land to develop uses in certain areas, there is increased concern that land be preserved for posterity'Â’s sake. We estimate the nonmarket value of a ranchland protection program in the Yampa River Valley in Routt County, Colorado, including the Steamboat Springs resort. The case study builds on previous land preservation studies by adding several preferences indicators. We find that local residentsÂ’' willingness to pay is substantial, but insufficient, to justify protecting the existing quantity of valley ranchland in the study area.Land Economics/Use,

    Biblical Coens: Can We Laugh Now?

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    A review of Coen criticism, specifically attending to Elijah Siegler’s recent, significant collection of essays, indicates that Coen brothers’ films frame characters in harsh, amoral worlds. This aesthetic “framing” is similar not only to Camus’ analysis of the absurd, but also to the “feel” of some biblical narratives. Where Camus urges one to move beyond the absurd to absurd creation and biblical narratives press on to faith—at least, in most religious readings of them—the Coens laugh. A selective overview of the use of bibles in Coen brothers’ films demonstrates that the Coens’ biblical hermeneutic is risible. Their films frame bibles in amoral worlds, displace the Holy Bible, deploy popular bibles, twist and subvert bibles, reduce bibles to implicit backgrounds, and use bibles to laugh at characters, stories, and the human condition. In this, the Coens are also laughing at themselves. The article concludes by asking whether the Coens’ hermeneutic can help academics read biblical narratives differently and, perhaps, even learn to laugh at themselves as they read.

    Now That was a Nice Hanging: The Hateful Eight as Parable?

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    The opening of Quentin Tarantino’s The Hateful Eight conjoins the iconic landscape of the Western, Christianity’s chief symbol the crucifix, and Tarantino’s oeuvre. The film gives the crucifix so much screen time that one wonders what its significance might be. That the film climaxes with the lynching of Daisy Domergue renders the crucifix teasingly parabolic. The opening-closing frame parallels the two hangings, as do the various eulogies associated with the lynching. That Daisy’s lynching takes place at the hands of the film’s two surviving characters—who, like the horses that lead the stagecoach team delivering Daisy to her fate, are black and white—seems to suggest that this crucifix raises some questions about U.S. racial violence. The crucifix is certainly atypical for cinema in that it does not hallow or bring triumph. Instead, this dangling crucifix (or aesthetics and ethics arising from it and the Western) may contribute to, rather than ameliorate, U.S. racial violence. At least, the deadliness of violent aesthetics is underlined by the combination in the film’s lynching finale with the revelation of the fictional status of the hope for racial harmony in the film’s Lincoln Letter, a haunting anti-War song, and the death or near-death of the film’s last two actors

    Wildlife and fish use assessment: long-run forecasts of participation in fishing, hunting and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation

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    December 1987.Bibliography: pages 76-81

    Recreation benefits of water quality: Rocky Mountain National Park, South Platte River Basin, Colorado

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    Bibliography: pages [114]-120

    ISSUES IN NONMARKET VALUATION AND POLICY APPLICATION: A RETROSPECTIVE GLANCE

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    While issues in estimating nonmarket values continue to cause concern, resource economists have more reason now than ever before to be optimistic. More progress toward improved measurement has been made in the past six years than in the previous quarter century since development of the contingent valuation and travel cost methods. The new challenge is to learn how to adjust past studies to estimate nonmarket values for future policy analysis. The process involves developing an understanding of the important variables that explain the observed difference in estimates. This paper illustrates how the results thus far could be adjusted to develop some tentative estimates of the recreation-use value of Forest Service resources.Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Economics of Change in Market Structure, Conduct, and Performance The Baking Industry 1947-1958

    Get PDF
    Baking is one of the largest industries in the United States. Its sales, which exceed 4billionannually,rankitthirdamongthefoodprocessingindustries,andthirteenthamongallmanufacturingindustries.Bakeryproductsaccountfornearly4 billion annually, rank it third among the food processing industries, and thirteenth among all manufacturing industries. Bakery products account for nearly 1 out of every $10 spent by American consumers for food. Almost half of the domestic consumption of wheat flour is in the form of bread, rolls, cake, pie, doughnuts, sweet goods, and other perishable bakery products. While this study encompasses the perishable bakery products industry as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, it focuses primarily on wholesale markets for white bread. Since World War II, important changes have occurred in the bread baking industry. A decline in the per capita demand for bread products coupled with changes in technology and costs has affected the relationships between baking companies, their market behavior, and the resulting level of efficiency and price performance. In an industrial economy, the farming, milling, baking, retailing, and consuming functions are integrally related. Changes in the organization and practices in one may induce changes in others. The baking industry occupies a strategic position in this process, and as a result, consumers, farmers, millers, and retailers, as well as bakers themselves, have a vital interest in the way the baking industry performs. Changes in market structure and firm behavior in the baking industry have been the subject of study and concern by several interested individuals and groups. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has followed with increased concern the widening of the market margin and the declining farmer share of consumer bread prices. The Senate Agricultural Committee has completed a study of average cost and returns of bakery operations.The Federal Trade Commission has followed the pricing practices of many baking companies with frequent cease and desist orders. I\u3e The Justice Department, through periodic prosecutions, has kept baking firms aware of the limitation imposed by the antitrust laws. The Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly has studied the impact of discriminatory pricing by large baking companies on small independent bakers.7 The industry has encouraged economic study of the historic development of baking and changes in market organization and practices.s Most recently, the F.T.C. studied buyer concentration and the integration of retail grocery organizations into baking and other food processing industries

    Efficiency of wastewater disposal in mountain areas

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    Bibliography: pages 88-92.Supported in part by Colorado State University Experiment Station Project 264, WR-118, and Eisenhower Consortium, U. S. Forest Service, Cooperative Agreement 16-660-GR
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