20,205 research outputs found

    Metal alloy resistivity measurements at very low temperatures

    Get PDF
    High speed, automated system accurately measures to approximately one percent in three minutes. System identifies materials having constant thermal or electric conductivity, predicts new material properties, develops alloys in accordance with desired specifications, and develops nondestructive devices for measuring precipitation hardening

    Observation of Single Transits in Supercooled Monatomic Liquids

    Full text link
    A transit is the motion of a system from one many-particle potential energy valley to another. We report the observation of transits in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of supercooled liquid argon and sodium. Each transit is a correlated simultaneous shift in the equilibrium positions of a small local group of particles, as revealed in the fluctuating graphs of the particle coordinates versus time. This is the first reported direct observation of transit motion in a monatomic liquid in thermal equilibrium. We found transits involving 2 to 11 particles, having mean shift in equilibrium position on the order of 0.4 R_1 in argon and 0.25 R_1 in sodium, where R_1 is the nearest neighbor distance. The time it takes for a transit to occur is approximately one mean vibrational period, confirming that transits are fast.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figure

    Adiabatic and Non-Adiabatic Contributions to the Free Energy from the Electron-Phonon Interaction for Na, K, Al, and Pb

    Full text link
    We calculate the adiabatic contributions to the free energy due to the electron--phonon interaction at intermediate temperatures, 0⩽kBT<ϵF0 \leqslant k_{B} T < \epsilon_{F} for the elemental metals Na, K, Al, and Pb. Using our previously published results for the nonadiabatic contributions we show that the adiabatic contribution, which is proportional to T2T^{2} at low temperatures and goes as T3T^{3} at high temperatures, dominates the nonadiabatic contribution for temperatures above a cross--over temperature, TcT_{c}, which is between 0.5 and 0.8 TmT_{m}, where TmT_{m} is the melting temperature of the metal. The nonadiabatic contribution falls as T−1T^{-1} for temperatures roughly above the average phonon frequency.Comment: Updated versio

    On the accuracy of the melting curves drawn from modelling a solid as an elastic medium

    Full text link
    An ongoing problem in the study of a classical many-body system is the characterization of its equilibrium behaviour by theory or numerical simulation. For purely repulsive particles, locating the melting line in the pressure-temperature plane can be especially hard if the interparticle potential has a softened core or contains some adjustable parameters. A method is hereby presented that yields reliable melting-curve topologies with negligible computational effort. It is obtained by combining the Lindemann melting criterion with a description of the solid phase as an elastic continuum. A number of examples are given in order to illustrate the scope of the method and possible shortcomings. For a two-body repulsion of Gaussian shape, the outcome of the present approach compares favourably with the more accurate but also more computationally demanding self-consistent harmonic approximation.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figure

    Scaling Analysis and Evolution Equation of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index Fluctuations

    Full text link
    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) monthly index is studied from 1825 till 2002 in order to identify the scaling ranges of its fluctuations upon different delay times and to find out whether or not it can be regarded as a Markov process. A Hurst rescaled range analysis and a detrended fluctuation analysis both indicate the existence of weakly persistent long range time correlations for the whole scaling range and time span hereby studied. Such correlations are similar to Brownian fluctuations. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived and Kramers-Moyal coefficients estimated from the data. They are interpreted in terms of a drift and a diffusion coefficient as in fluid mechanics. All partial distribution functions of the NAO monthly index fluctuations have a form close to a Gaussian, for all time lags, in agreement with the findings of the scaling analyses. This indicates the lack of predictive power of the present NAO monthly index. Yet there are some deviations for large (and thus rare) events. Whence suggestions for other measurements are made if some improved predictability of the weather/climate in the North Atlantic is of interest. The subsequent Langevin equation of the NAO signal fluctuations is explicitly written in terms of the diffusion and drift parameters, and a characteristic time scale for these is given in appendix.Comment: 6 figures, 54 refs., 16 pages; submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys. C: Comput. Phy

    The Evolution of Optical Depth in the Ly-alpha Forest: Evidence Against Reionization at z~6

    Get PDF
    We examine the evolution of the IGM Ly-alpha optical depth distribution using the transmitted flux probability distribution function (PDF) in a sample of 63 QSOs spanning absorption redshifts 1.7 < z < 5.8. The data are compared to two theoretical optical depth distributions: a model distribution based on the density distribution of Miralda-Escude et al. (2000) (MHR00), and a lognormal distribution. We assume a uniform UV background and an isothermal IGM for the MHR00 model, as has been done in previous works. Under these assumptions, the MHR00 model produces poor fits to the observed flux PDFs at redshifts where the optical depth distribution is well sampled, unless large continuum corrections are applied. However, the lognormal optical depth distribution fits the data at all redshifts with only minor continuum adjustments. We use a simple parametrization for the evolution of the lognormal parameters to calculate the expected mean transmitted flux at z > 5.4. The lognormal optical depth distribution predicts the observed Ly-alpha and Ly-beta effective optical depths at z > 5.7 while simultaneously fitting the mean transmitted flux down to z = 1.6. If the evolution of the lognormal distribution at z < 5 reflects a slowly-evolving density field, temperature, and UV background, then no sudden change in the IGM at z ~ 6 due to late reionization appears necessary. We have used the lognormal optical depth distribution without any assumption about the underlying density field. If the MHR00 density distribution is correct, then a non-uniform UV background and/or IGM temperature may be required to produce the correct flux PDF. We find that an inverse temperature-density relation greatly improves the PDF fits, but with a large scatter in the equation of state index. [Abridged]Comment: 45 pages, 16 figures, submitted to Ap
    • …