12,792 research outputs found

    Doing business in space: How to get there from here

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    A step by step process is described through which an existing enterprise or an entrepreneurial venture can initiate and carry out a new space venture. Throughout this process the business and technical aspects must be advanced in parallel with each other. Each depends on the other for its continued success, and companies may be unable to complete the venture if one or the other is neglected. The existing NASA programs and the experience of early trailblazers provide sufficient examples and opportunities for other firms to undertake new ventures with confidence. With the introduction of NASA's Commercial Space Policy, both the opportunities and the ease with which ventures can be carried out should increase significantly

    Concept for a commercial space station laboratory

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    The concept of a privately owned and operated fee-for-service laboratory as an element of a civil manned space station, envisioned as the venture of a group of private investors and an experienced laboratory operator to be undertaken with the cooperation of NASA is discussed. This group would acquire, outfit, activate, and operate the labortory on a fee-for-service basis, providing laboratory services to commercial firms, universities, and government agencies, including NASA. This concept was developed to identify, stimulate, and assist potential commercial users of a manned space station. A number of the issues which would be related to the concept, including the terms under which NASA might consider permitting private ownership and operation of a major space station component, the policies with respect to international participation in the construction and use of the space station, the basis for charging users for services received from the space station, and the types of support that NASA might be willing to provide to assist private industry in carrying out such a venture are discussed

    Gated rotation mechanism of site-specific recombination by Ď•C31 integrase

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    Integrases, such as that of the Streptomyces temperate bacteriophage ϕC31, promote site-specific recombination between DNA sequences in the bacteriophage and bacterial genomes to integrate or excise the phage DNA. ϕC31 integrase belongs to the serine recombinase family, a large group of structurally related enzymes with diverse biological functions. It has been proposed that serine integrases use a “subunit rotation” mechanism to exchange DNA strands after double-strand DNA cleavage at the two recombining att sites, and that many rounds of subunit rotation can occur before the strands are religated. We have analyzed the mechanism of ϕC31 integrase-mediated recombination in a topologically constrained experimental system using hybrid “phes” recombination sites, each of which comprises a ϕC31 att site positioned adjacent to a regulatory sequence recognized by Tn3 resolvase. The topologies of reaction products from circular substrates containing two phes sites support a right-handed subunit rotation mechanism for catalysis of both integrative and excisive recombination. Strand exchange usually terminates after a single round of 180° rotation. However, multiple processive “360° rotation” rounds of strand exchange can be observed, if the recombining sites have nonidentical base pairs at their centers. We propose that a regulatory “gating” mechanism normally blocks multiple rounds of strand exchange and triggers product release after a single round

    Towards electron transport measurements in chemically modified graphene: The effect of a solvent

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    Chemical functionalization of graphene modifies the local electron density of the carbon atoms and hence electron transport. Measuring these changes allows for a closer understanding of the chemical interaction and the influence of functionalization on the graphene lattice. However, not only chemistry, in this case diazonium chemistry, has an effect on the electron transport. Latter is also influenced by defects and dopants resulting from different processing steps. Here, we show that solvents used in the chemical reaction process change the transport properties. In more detail, the investigated combination of isopropanol and heating treatment reduces the doping concentration and significantly increases the mobility of graphene. Furthermore, the isopropanol treatment alone increases the concentration of dopants and introduces an asymmetry between electron and hole transport which might be difficult to distinguish from the effect of functionalization. The results shown in this work demand a closer look on the influence of solvents used for chemical modification in order to understand their influence

    Steam storage systems for flexible biomass CHP plants - Evaluation and initial model based calculation

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    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.Within the present study a novel concept for the demand-oriented power generation of a solid-biomass fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plant is investigated. The integration of a steam storage system into the plants process enables a decoupling of the steam (boiler) and the power generation (steam turbine). By buffering the steam, the power output of the turbine can be adjusted without changing the rated thermal capacity of the plant. Various available storage systems are selected and comparatively evaluated applying the adapted analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The technology assessment revealed that the combination of a steam accumulator and solid concrete storage represents the best suiting option. An initial model based simulation study is performed to identify the fundamental behaviour of this system, integrated in a biomass CHP plant. The operation principle is has proved their technical feasibility and seems to be applicable at a commercial scale. According to the modelling results flexible short term power generation in a time range of up to fifteen minutes is applicable. A load-range of almost the plants rated capacity can be achieved

    Validity and Reliability of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Working Alliance Self-Efficacy Scales

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    In this paper, the authors report on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Working Alliance Self-Efficacy Scales (LGB-WASES) with data collected from two studies and 534 counseling trainees. Exploratory factor analysis results yielded a 32-item scale with a three-factor model (a) Emotional Bond, (b) Establishing Tasks, and (c) Setting Goals. LGB-WASES scores were internally consistent and remained stable over a 3-week period. Construct validity evidence suggests the LGB-WASES scores were (a) positively related to general perceptions of counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling competency, (b) negatively related to attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, and (d) unrelated to social desirability. Recommendations for future research are also discussed

    A CS J = 2 1 survey of the galactic center region

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    A CS map of the galactic center region is presented consisting of 15,000 spectra covering -1 deg. less than 3. deg. 6 min., -0 deg.4 min. less than b less than 0 deg. 4 min., each having an rms noise of 0.15 K in 1 MHz filters. CS is a high-excitation molecule, meaning that it is excited into emission only when the ambient density is less than n much greater than or approx. 2 x 10 to the 4th power/cu cm CS emission in the inner 2 deg. of the galaxy is nearly as pervasive as CO emission, in stark contrast to the outer galaxy where CS emission is confined to cloud cores. Galactic center clouds are on average much more dense than outer Galaxy clouds. This can be understood as a necessary consequence of the strong tidal stresses in the inner galaxy

    Anti-aliasing with stratified B-spline filters of arbitrary degree

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    A simple and elegant method is presented to perform anti-aliasing in raytraced images. The method uses stratified sampling to reduce the occurrence of artefacts in an image and features a B-spline filter to compute the final luminous intensity at each pixel. The method is scalable through the specification of the filter degree. A B-spline filter of degree one amounts to a simple anti-aliasing scheme with box filtering. Increasing the degree of the B-spline generates progressively smoother filters. Computation of the filter values is done in a recursive way, as part of a sequence of Newton-Raphson iterations, to obtain the optimal sample positions in screen space. The proposed method can perform both anti-aliasing in space and in time, the latter being more commonly known as motion blur. We show an application of the method to the ray casting of implicit procedural surfaces

    Bonnard´s representation of the perception of substance

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    Artists are said to be like neuroscientists able to exploit the capacities of the brain to generate aesthetic experience (Zeki, 2001). Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) has been recognized as one of the greatest and most enigmatic masters of the 20th century painting. For his understanding of the eye movements, attentional shifts mechanism and the representation in his paintings of the complexity of the physiological process of vision perception, something that he famously referred to as "the transcription of the adventures of the optic nerve", he is considered a revolutionary painter. Our recent eye movements study on Bonnard's paintings evidences a "temporal-extended" mechanism in the control of scanpaths that refers to a progression of the scanpath pattern during repetitive viewings and supports the phenomenon of late emotional response which was one of the artist's artistic and perceptual objective
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