864 research outputs found

    Ignition of a Combustible Solid with Reactant Consumption

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    The effects of excessive reactant consumption on the ignition of a combustible solid are introduced through a revised scaling of the heat release constant. Large activation energy asymptotics then yields a new one-parameter integral equation governing the temperature evolution near ignition. Analysis of the integral equation reveals a critical value of the parameter which distinguishes between the cases of ignition and nonignition. © 1987 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematic

    Stability of a Viscoelastic Burgers Flow

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    The system of equations proposed by Burgers to model turbulent flow in a channel is extended to include viscoelastic affects. The stability and bifurcation properties are examined in the neighborhood of the critical Reynolds number. For highly elastic fluids, the bifurcated state is periodic with a shift in frequency

    Di-μ-oxido-bis­[(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N,N′,N′′,N′′′)dimangan­ese(III,IV)] bis­(tetra­phenyl­borate) chloride acetonitrile disolvate

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    The title compound, [Mn2O2(C10H24N4)2](C24H20B)2Cl·2CH3CN, is a mixed-valent MnIII/MnIV oxide-bridged mangan­ese dimer with one chloride and two tetra­phenyl­borate counter-anions. There are two non-coordinated mol­ecules of acetonitrile in the formula unit. A center of inversion is present between the two metal atoms, and, consequently, there is no distinction between MnIII and MnIV metal centers. In the Mn2O2 core, the Mn—O distances are 1.817 (3) and 1.821 (3) Å. The cyclam ligand is in the cis configuration. The chloride counter-anion resides on a center of symmetry, whereas the tetra­phenyl­borate counter-anion is in a general position. The cyclam ligand is hydrogen bonded to the acetonitrile as well as to the chloride anion. One of the phenyl rings of the anion and the acetonitrile solvent molecule are each disordered over two sets of sites

    Multi-State Trials of Bt Sweet Corn Varieties for Control of the Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide us

    Extending the applicability of the dose addition model to the assessment of chemical mixtures of partial agonists by using a novel toxic unit extrapolation method

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    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.Dose addition, a commonly used concept in toxicology for the prediction of chemical mixture effects, cannot readily be applied to mixtures of partial agonists with differing maximal effects. Due to its mathematical features, effect levels that exceed the maximal effect of the least efficacious compound present in the mixture, cannot be calculated. This poses problems when dealing with mixtures likely to be encountered in realistic assessment situations where chemicals often show differing maximal effects. To overcome this limitation, we developed a pragmatic solution that extrapolates the toxic units of partial agonists to effect levels beyond their maximal efficacy. We extrapolated different additivity expectations that reflect theoretically possible extremes and validated this approach with a mixture of 21 estrogenic chemicals in the E-Screen. This assay measures the proliferation of human epithelial breast cancers. We found that the dose-response curves of the estrogenic agents exhibited widely varying shapes, slopes and maximal effects, which made it necessary to extrapolate mixture responses above 14% proliferation. Our toxic unit extrapolation approach predicted all mixture responses accurately. It extends the applicability of dose addition to combinations of agents with differing saturating effects and removes an important bottleneck that has severely hampered the use of dose addition in the past. © 2014 Scholze et al

    Global attractors for strongly damped wave equations with displacement dependent damping and nonlinear source term of critical exponent

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    In this paper the long time behaviour of the solutions of 3-D strongly damped wave equation is studied. It is shown that the semigroup generated by this equation possesses a global attractor in H_{0}^{1}(\Omega)\times L_{2}(\Omega) and then it is proved that this global attractor is a bounded subset of H^{2}(\Omega)\times H^{2}(\Omega) and also a global attractor in H^{2}(\Omega)\cap H_{0}^{1}(\Omega)\times H_{0}^{1}(\Omega)

    Robust Inference of Monocot Deep Phylogeny Using an Expanded Multigene Plastid Data Set

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    We use multiple photosynthetic, chlororespiratory, and plastid translation apparatus loci and their associated noncoding regions (ca. 16 kb per taxon, prior to alignment) to make strongly supported inferences of the deep internal branches of monocot phylogeny. Most monocot relationships are robust (an average of ca. 91 % bootstrap support per branch examined), including those poorly supported or unresolved in other studies. Our data strongly support a sister-group relationship between Asparagales and the commelinid monocots, the inclusion of the orchids in Asparagales, and the status of Petrosaviaceae as the sister group of all monocots except Acorus and Alismatales. The latter finding supports recognition of the order Petrosaviales. Also strongly supported is a placement of Petermannia disjunct from Colchicaceae (Liliales) and a sister-group relationship between Commelinales and Zingiberales. We highlight the remaining weak areas of monocot phylogeny, including the positions of Dioscoreales, Liliales, and Pandanales. Despite substantial variation in the overall rate of molecular evolution among lineages, inferred amounts of change among codon-position data partitions are correlated with each other across the monocot tree, consistent with low incongruence between these partitions. Ceratophyllum and Chloranthaceae appear to have a destabilizing effect on the position of the monocots among other angiosperms; the issue of monocot placement in broader angiosperm phylogeny remains problematic

    The theory and application of Navier-Stokeslets (NSlets)

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    Consider a closed body moving in an unbounded fluid that decays to rest in the far-field and governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. By considering a translating reference frame, this is equivalent to a uniform flow past the body. A velocity representation is given as an integral distribution of Green’s functions of the Navier-Stokes equations which we shall call NSlets. The strength of the NSlets is the same as the force distribution over the body boundary. An expansion for the NSlet is given with the leading-order term being the Oseenlet. To test the theory, the following three two-dimensional steady flow benchmark applications are considered. First, consider uniform flow past a circular cylinder for three cases: low Reynolds number; high Reynolds number; and also intermediate Reynolds numbers at values 26 and 36. These values are chosen because the flow is still steady and hasn’t yet become unsteady. For low Reynolds number, approximate the NSlet by the leading order Oseenlet term. For high Reynolds number, approximate the NSlet by the Eulerlet which is the leading order Oseenlet in the high Reynolds number limit. For the intermediate Reynolds numbers, approximate the NSlet by an Eulerlet close to its origin, and an Oseenlet further away. Second, consider uniform flow past a slender body with elliptical cross-section with Reynolds number Re ∼ 10 6 , and approximate the NSlet by the Eulerlet. Finally, consider the Bla- sius problem of uniform flow past a semi-infinite flat plate and consider the first three terms in the NSlet approximation
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