12,542 research outputs found

    Edge-reinforced random walk on a ladder

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    We prove that the edge-reinforced random walk on the ladder Z×{1,2}{\mathbb{Z}\times\{1,2\}} with initial weights a>3/4a>3/4 is recurrent. The proof uses a known representation of the edge-reinforced random walk on a finite piece of the ladder as a random walk in a random environment. This environment is given by a marginal of a multicomponent Gibbsian process. A transfer operator technique and entropy estimates from statistical mechanics are used to analyze this Gibbsian process. Furthermore, we prove spatially exponentially fast decreasing bounds for normalized local times of the edge-reinforced random walk on a finite piece of the ladder, uniformly in the size of the finite piece.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/009117905000000396 in the Annals of Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aop/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Asymptotic behavior of edge-reinforced random walks

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    In this article, we study linearly edge-reinforced random walk on general multi-level ladders for large initial edge weights. For infinite ladders, we show that the process can be represented as a random walk in a random environment, given by random weights on the edges. The edge weights decay exponentially in space. The process converges to a stationary process. We provide asymptotic bounds for the range of the random walker up to a given time, showing that it localizes much more than an ordinary random walker. The random environment is described in terms of an infinite-volume Gibbs measure.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/009117906000000674 in the Annals of Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aop/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Vortex-boson duality in four space-time dimensions

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    A continuum version of the vortex-boson duality in (3+1) dimensions is formulated and its implications studied in the context of a pair Wigner crystal in underdoped cuprate superconductors. The dual theory to a phase fluctuating superconductor (or superfluid) is shown to be a theory of bosonic strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond rank-2 tensorial gauge field. String condensation produces Higgs mass for the gauge field and the expected Wigner crystal emerges as an interesting space-time analog of the Abrikosov lattice.Comment: 4 pages REVTeX; for related work and info visit http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~fran

    Spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in the presence of defects

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    We prove a strong form of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry for a simple model of two-dimensional crystals with random defects in thermal equilibrium at low temperature. The defects consist of isolated missing atoms.Comment: 18 page