20 research outputs found

    Politics of the green economy in Russia's European North

    Get PDF
    Abstract The global drive for a greener economy generates controversy in Russia, a country that is dependent on export of raw mineral resources. Debates are most heated in relation to the North, where resource extraction takes place. In an environment of high unemployment and low income ecological issues are priority for a few environmentalists. Russian politicians, who support the green economy in international fora, instead emphasize economic development at home and show little interest in environmental protection. This article focuses on the controversies over policies from the perspective of environmentalists and members of local communities in Murmansk Region who are struggling to establish a national park in the Khibiny Mountains. The initiative has been presented by some environmentalists as a contribution to the green economy, but it also demonstrates mechanisms of nature governance in Russia, as well as the limited possibilities for bottom-up participation of NGOs, scholars, and the indigenous community. The article also situates the green economy in Russia within critical analysis of the global green economy, which reveals common trends and problems. Russia replicates the common overemphasis on economic development and commoditization of nature rather than radical reformation of nature's value and use. Key words: Green Economy, Russia, Nature Conservation, Arctic, Indigenous Sami, Murmansk Regio

    The Performative Machine: Transfer of Ownership in a Northwest Russian Reindeer Herder Community (Kola Peninsula)

    Get PDF
    The article is based on longitudinal fieldwork with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Its main ethnographic focus is SKhPK Tundra of Lovozero. The main argument is that a state of communal affairs under the dominance of the state farm (sovkohz) , during the Soviet period, privileged domestic economies of the farm workers to be supported by the collective assets of the farm. The authors see this state of "the private-in-the-collective" arrangement as "sovkhoism" and view the present variety of rural organizational forms in Russia as greater or lesser departures from it

    ‘Love for the Rich, Porn for the People’ : Popular Music in the Balkans as a Locus for Negotiation of Belonging and Social Distinction

    No full text
    In contemporary scholarly discussions, similar styles of music that are popular in different parts of the Balkans, have been defined rhetorically as “porn-nationalism”, “deviant and violent activity”, “social ill”, and even sadism. This article discusses two such styles, the so called turbofolk in post-Yugoslavian spaces, and chalgain Bulgaria, which have similar genealogies and social contexts and kinship links, but have not been studied comparatively. I will briefly present the history of the two styles, respectively in the 1980s and the early 1990s, in order to contextualize their social roots and show the interplay of global and local music models and tastes. I find this important in order to make an argument for the analytical potentials of comparative research. Further, I briefly mention some of the dominant perspectives in existing research in order to point to aspects, perspec-tives, and factors that have received less scholarly attention. Finally, I suggest that event analysis, an evolving method in anthropology, can provide new analytical tools and help increase understanding of the popularity and social significance of turbofolk and chalga

    ‘Love for the Rich, Porn for the People’ : Popular Music in the Balkans as a Locus for Negotiation of Belonging and Social Distinction

    No full text
    In contemporary scholarly discussions, similar styles of music that are popular in different parts of the Balkans, have been defined rhetorically as “porn-nationalism”, “deviant and violent activity”, “social ill”, and even sadism. This article discusses two such styles, the so called turbofolk in post-Yugoslavian spaces, and chalgain Bulgaria, which have similar genealogies and social contexts and kinship links, but have not been studied comparatively. I will briefly present the history of the two styles, respectively in the 1980s and the early 1990s, in order to contextualize their social roots and show the interplay of global and local music models and tastes. I find this important in order to make an argument for the analytical potentials of comparative research. Further, I briefly mention some of the dominant perspectives in existing research in order to point to aspects, perspec-tives, and factors that have received less scholarly attention. Finally, I suggest that event analysis, an evolving method in anthropology, can provide new analytical tools and help increase understanding of the popularity and social significance of turbofolk and chalga

    Continuous Militarization as a Mode of Governance of Indigenous People in the Russian Arctic

    Get PDF
    This article analyzes ethnographic data that shows long-term militarization forms a significant part of state governance of the population and environment in the Arctic. Kola Peninsula, the study region, is a borderland with the West and has since the 1950s been a heavily militarized area. Applying insights from research on militarization, subjectivities, materiality, borders, and regionalism in autocratic regimes, I show how militarization shapes the environment and the lives of Indigenous reindeer herders. Despite discourses of demilitarization in the 1990s, Kola Peninsula did not move away from militarization as part of governance. The article explores what I call continuous militarization by engaging with two phenomena: (a) fencing off territories for military use and infrastructure, and (b) nuclear pollution. It discusses the interrelations of materiality and knowledge in maintaining Indigenous subjectivities and culture in line with the objectives of militarization, and shows how Russia uses participation in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region to support the objectives of militarization and justify them to the local population. The article finds that militarization is employed by the authorities to solidify the current autocratic regime among residents in the Arctic

    Security strategies of indigenous women in Nenets Autonomous Region, Russia

    No full text
    This paper discusses different strategies used by indigenous women seeking social security in Nenets Autonomous Region, Russia. Social security is understood as state provision as well as cultural institutions and efforts of individuals to overcome insecurity. One case describes the history of a woman who after the loss of her husband resorted to a traditional solution: she moved in to join the household of the deceased husband's brothers in the tundra. In the second case, a woman leaves her baby in a orphanage for a few months. This latter strategy shows how women are able to preserve a high birth-rate while sustaining a tundra-based life. Even though these choices are seen within the dichotomy of tradition and modernity, which is central to existing ethnographies, this paper attempts to take the analysis further. I apply anthropological insights about care as a process that reveals social bonds, group belonging and identity in different settings, from the more intimate ties within kin groups to large-scale social systems such as state institutions. My goal is to contribute to the study of the interconnectedness among bonds, relations and affective landscapes on different levels - from mother-children bonds, to the nuclear family to community and state institutions

    Regional environmental governance of protected natural territories in the European North : Russia, Finland, and Norway, and the case of Pasvik-Inari Trilateral Park

    No full text
    This article explores how international organizations (IOs), national governments, and regional actors interact in the field of nature conservation in the European Arctic, focusing on Russia. I also reveal the unequal role of Indigenous communities, which are stakeholders in protected nature territories in the Arctic but receive limited attention in research.I present the case of the Pasvik-Inari Trilateral Park, which in 2008 received Europarc Certification as a result of long-term international cooperation dating back to the 1990s. The park consists of five protected natural areas: three in Norway, one in Russia and one in Finland. The areas have different organizational forms and restrictions on human activities, and the efforts of IOs such as the Europarc Federation to increase cooperation and coordination among them in conservation projects, research initiatives, and international travel for tourists, have had only partial success.I apply insights from regional analysis to discuss how governance at international, national, and local levels shape the practices and ideas of nature conservation in the different parts of Pasvik-Inari. The article also addresses the role of Indigenous environmental knowledge and nature use in protected natural territories in the Arctic. The paper contributes to the special issue on regional environmental governance by expanding the regional focus toward Russia and by stressing the significant relations between Indigenous communities and nature that should be taken into consideration in Arctic environmental governance

    Chaipit’e (tea drinking) on the Bank of River Vym

    Get PDF
    publishedVersio

    Introduction : Feminist Approaches and the Study of Gender in Arctic Social Sciences

    No full text
    Notwithstanding the gradual intensification of contacts across the different parts of the circumpolar North, research on gender in the Arctic is still a fragmented field – not the least because of language barriers. The four cases presented here, all from the Far North of Russia, are intended to complement research on gender in North America and the Nordic countries. We also hope they will encourage wider use of feminist approaches in geography and social sciences. After a first overview of how gender emerged as a topic of study in the circumpolar North, the introduction will focus on gender-specific forms of mobility and immobility. Next, gender will be discussed in relation to identity and intersectionality under colonial and post-colonial conditions. Thereafter, Feminist Political Ecology and other theoretical directions are portrayed as theoretical approaches to studying gendered economies. Such contextualization of the study of gender in the Arctic prepares the ground for short summaries of the four papers in this special issue, to be concluded by a brief statement about future directions of research. Particularly the concept of intersectionality is favored as a useful basis for examining gender, indigeneity, and economic differences
    corecore