2,548 research outputs found

    Profile measurements of plasma columns using microwave resonant cavities

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    Microwave resonant cavity measurements of radial electron density profile of positive column of gas discharg

    Initial Conditions for Supersymmetric Inflation

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    We perform a numerical investigation of the fields evolution in the supersymmetric inflationary model based on radiative corrections. Supergravity corrections are also included. We find that, out of all the examined initial data, only about 10% give an adequate amount of inflation and can be considered as ''natural''. Moreover, these successful initial conditions appear scattered and more or less isolated.Comment: 15 pages RevTeX 4 eps figure

    Endocrine Dysfunction in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA): A Report from the DBA Registry (DBAR)

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    BACKGROUND: Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. The mainstays of treatment involve chronic red cell transfusions, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Systematic data concerning endocrine function in DBA are limited. We studied patients in the DBA Registry (DBAR) of North America to assess the prevalence of various endocrinopathies. PROCEDURE: In a pilot study, retrospective data were collected for 12 patients with DBA. Subsequently, patients with DBA aged 1-39 years were recruited prospectively. Combined, 57 patients were studied; 38 chronically transfused, 12 glucocorticoid-dependent, and seven in remission. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, systematic screening of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic, and gonadal function, and ferritin levels. Descriptive statistics were tabulated and group differences were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of patients had \u3e/=1 endocrine disorder, including adrenal insufficiency (32%), hypogonadism (29%), hypothyroidism (14%), growth hormone dysfunction (7%), diabetes mellitus (2%), and/or diabetes insipidus (2%). Ten of the 33 patients with available heights had height standard deviation less than -2. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were present in 50%. A small proportion also had osteopenia, osteoporosis, or hypercalciuria. Most with adrenal insufficiency were glucocorticoid dependent; other endocrinopathies were more common in chronically transfused patients. CONCLUSIONS: Endocrine dysfunction is common in DBA, as early as the teenage years. Although prevalence is highest in transfused patients, patients taking glucocorticoids or in remission also have endocrine dysfunction. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the etiology and true prevalence of these disorders

    Genotype-phenotype association and variant characterization in Diamond-Blackfan anemia caused by pathogenic variants in

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    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is predominantly an autosomal dominant inherited red cell aplasia primarily caused by pathogenic germline variants in ribosomal protein genes. DBA due to pathogenic RPL35A variants has been associated with large 3q29 deletions and phenotypes not common in DBA. We conducted a multi-institutional genotype-phenotype study of 45 patients with DBA associated with pathogenic RPL35A germline variants and curated the variant data on 21 additional cases from the literature. Genotype-phenotype analyses were conducted comparing patients with large deletions versus all other pathogenic variants in RPL35A. Twenty-two of the 45 cases had large deletions in RPL35A. After adjusting for multiple tests, a statistically significant association was observed between patients with a large deletion and steroid-resistant anemia, neutropenia, craniofacial abnormalities, chronic gastrointestinal problems, and intellectual disabilities (

    Phase Separation of Crystal Surfaces: A Lattice Gas Approach

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    We consider both equilibrium and kinetic aspects of the phase separation (``thermal faceting") of thermodynamically unstable crystal surfaces into a hill--valley structure. The model we study is an Ising lattice gas for a simple cubic crystal with nearest--neighbor attractive interactions and weak next--nearest--neighbor repulsive interactions. It is likely applicable to alkali halides with the sodium chloride structure. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the equilibrium crystal shape can be interpreted as a phase diagram and that the details of its structure tell us into which surface orientations an unstable surface will decompose. We find that, depending on the temperature and growth conditions, a number of interesting behaviors are expected. For a crystal in equilibrium with its vapor, these include a low temperature regime with logarithmically--slow separation into three symmetrically--equivalent facets, and a higher temperature regime where separation proceeds as a power law in time into an entire one--parameter family of surface orientations. For a crystal slightly out of equilibrium with its vapor (slow crystal growth or etching), power--law growth should be the rule at late enough times. However, in the low temperature regime, the rate of separation rapidly decreases as the chemical potential difference between crystal and vapor phases goes to zero.Comment: 16 pages (RevTex 3.0); 12 postscript figures available on request ([email protected]). Submitted to Physical Review E. SFU-JDSDJB-94-0

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2) is epigenetically regulated in carboplatin resistance and results in collateral sensitivity to the CDK inhibitor seliciclib in ovarian cancer

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    Carboplatin remains a first-line agent in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Unfortunately, platinum-resistant disease ultimately occurs in most patients. Using a novel EOC cell line with acquired resistance to carboplatin: PEO1CarbR, genome-wide micro-array profiling identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2) as specifically downregulated in carboplatin resistance. Presently, we describe confirmation of these preliminary data with a variety of approaches

    Somatic mosaicism of an intragenic FANCB duplication in both fibroblast and peripheral blood cells observed in a Fanconi anemia patient leads to milder phenotype

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    © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Patients harboring X-linked FANCB pathogenic variants usually present with severe congenital malformations resembling VACTERL syndrome with hydrocephalus. Methods: We employed the diepoxybutane (DEB) test for FA diagnosis, arrayCGH for detection of duplication, targeted capture and next-gen sequencing for defining the duplication breakpoint, PacBio sequencing of full-length FANCB aberrant transcript, FANCD2 ubiquitination and foci formation assays for the evaluation of FANCB protein function by viral transduction of FANCB- cells with lentiviral FANCB WT and mutant expression constructs, and droplet digital PCR for quantitation of the duplication in the genomic DNA and cDNA. Results: We describe here an FA-B patient with a mild phenotype. The DEB diagnostic test for FA revealed somatic mosaicism. We identified a 9154 bp intragenic duplication in FANCB, covering the first coding exon 3 and the flanking regions. A four bp homology (GTAG) present at both ends of the breakpoint is consistent with microhomology-mediated duplication mechanism. The duplicated allele gives rise to an aberrant transcript containing exon 3 duplication, predicted to introduce a stop codon in FANCB protein (p.A319*). Duplication levels in the peripheral blood DNA declined from 93% to 7.9% in the span of eleven years. Moreover, the patient fibroblasts have shown 8% of wild-type (WT) allele and his carrier mother showed higher than expected levels of WT allele (79% vs. 50%) in peripheral blood, suggesting that the duplication was highly unstable. Conclusion: Unlike sequence point variants, intragenic duplications are difficult to precisely define, accurately quantify, and may be very unstable, challenging the proper diagnosis. The reversion of genomic duplication to the WT allele results in somatic mosaicism and may explain the relatively milder phenotype displayed by the FA-B patient described here

    Tests of the Equivalence Principle with Neutral Kaons

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    We test the Principle of Equivalence for particles and antiparticles, using CPLEAR data on tagged K0 and K0bar decays into pi^+ pi^-. For the first time, we search for possible annual, monthly and diurnal modulations of the observables |eta_{+-}| and phi_{+-}, that could be correlated with variations in astrophysical potentials. Within the accuracy of CPLEAR, the measured values of |eta_{+-}| and phi_{+-} are found not to be correlated with changes of the gravitational potential. We analyze data assuming effective scalar, vector and tensor interactions, and we conclude that the Principle of Equivalence between particles and antiparticles holds to a level of 6.5, 4.3 and 1.8 x 10^{-9}, respectively, for scalar, vector and tensor potentials originating from the Sun with a range much greater than the distance Earth-Sun. We also study energy-dependent effects that might arise from vector or tensor interactions. Finally, we compile upper limits on the gravitational coupling difference between K0 and K0bar as a function of the scalar, vector and tensor interaction range.Comment: 15 pages latex 2e, five figures, one style file (cernart.csl) incorporate

    Search for Branons at LEP

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    We search, in the context of extra-dimension scenarios, for the possible existence of brane fluctuations, called branons. Events with a single photon or a single Z-boson and missing energy and momentum collected with the L3 detector in e^+ e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s}=189-209$ GeV are analysed. No excess over the Standard Model expectations is found and a lower limit at 95% confidence level of 103 GeV is derived for the mass of branons, for a scenario with small brane tensions. Alternatively, under the assumption of a light branon, brane tensions below 180 GeV are excluded

    Study of Spin and Decay-Plane Correlations of W Bosons in the e+e- -> W+W- Process at LEP

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    Data collected at LEP at centre-of-mass energies \sqrt(s) = 189 - 209 GeV are used to study correlations of the spin of W bosons using e+e- -> W+W- -> lnqq~ events. Spin correlations are favoured by data, and found to agree with the Standard Model predictions. In addition, correlations between the W-boson decay planes are studied in e+e- -> W+W- -> lnqq~ and e+e- -> W+W- -> qq~qq~ events. Decay-plane correlations, consistent with zero and with the Standard Model predictions, are measured
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