57 research outputs found

    In Vitro Evaluation of Self-Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) Containing Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) for the Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

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    Amphotericin B (AmpB), one of the most commonly used agents in the treatment of severe fungal infections and life-threatening parasitic diseases such as visceral Leishmaniasis, has a negligible oral bioavailability, primarily due to a low solubility and permeability. To develop an oral formulation, medium chain triglycerides and nonionic surfactants in a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing AmpB were combined with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) of imidazolium. The presence of ionic liquids significantly enhanced the solubility of AmpB, exhibited a low toxicity and increased the transport of AmpB across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The combination of RTILs with a lipid formulation might be a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of AmpB

    Establishment of computational biology in Greece and Cyprus: Past, present, and future.

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    We review the establishment of computational biology in Greece and Cyprus from its inception to date and issue recommendations for future development. We compare output to other countries of similar geography, economy, and size—based on publication counts recorded in the literature—and predict future growth based on those counts as well as national priority areas. Our analysis may be pertinent to wider national or regional communities with challenges and opportunities emerging from the rapid expansion of the field and related industries. Our recommendations suggest a 2-fold growth margin for the 2 countries, as a realistic expectation for further expansion of the field and the development of a credible roadmap of national priorities, both in terms of research and infrastructure funding

    Pharmacological development of target-specific delocalized lipophilic cation-functionalized carboranes for cancer therapy

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    PURPOSE: Tumor cell heterogeneity and microenvironment represent major hindering factors in the clinical setting toward achieving the desired selectivity and specificity to malignant tissues for molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics. In this study, the cellular and molecular evaluation of several delocalized lipophilic cation (DLC)-functionalized carborane compounds as innovative anticancer agents is presented. METHODS: The anticancer potential assessment of the DLC-carboranes was performed in established normal (MRC-5, Vero), cancer (U-87 MG, HSC-3) and primary glioblastoma cancer stem (EGFRpos, EGFRneg) cultures. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of action underlying their pharmacological response is also analyzed. RESULTS: The pharmacological anticancer profile of DLC-functionalized carboranes is characterized by: a) a marked in vitro selectivity, due to lower concentration range needed (ca. 10 fold) to exert their cell growth-arrest effect on U-87 MG and HSC-3, as compared with that on MRC-5 and Vero; b) a similar selective growth inhibition behavior towards EGFRpos and EGFRneg cultures (>10 fold difference in potency) without, however, the activation of apoptosis in cultures; c) notably, in marked contrast to cancer cells, normal cells are capable of recapitulating their full proliferation potential following exposure to DLC-carboranes; and, d) such pharmacological effects of DLC-carboranes has been unveiled to be elicited at the molecular level through activation of the p53/p21 axis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data presented in this work indicates the potential of the DLC-functionalized carboranes to act as new selective anticancer therapeutics that may be used autonomously or in therapies involving radiation with thermal neutrons. Importantly, such bifunctional capacity may be beneficial in cancer therapy

    Induction of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation is associated with methylation and differential stability of poly(A)+ RNA transcripts

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    AbstractMurine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells exposed to DMSO were assessed for their ability to methylate poly(A)+ RNA and accumulate RNA transcripts of globin and nonglobin genes (c-myc, β-actin and MER5). Cells were pulse-labeled with t.-[methyl-3H]methionine, cytoplasmic RNA was isolated, selected for poly(A)+ RNA and analyzed by HPLC chromatography for methylated nucleosides. When MEL cells were exposed to inhibitors of RNA methylation (neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A and cycloleucine) and assessed for their ability to differentiate by DMSO, accumulate RNA transcripts, produce hemoglobin, methylate poly(A)+ and poly(A)− RNA and synthesize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), we observed the following: (a) MEL cells treated with DMSO underwent hypermethylation in poly(A)+ RNA that preferentially occurred at the 5′-cap structures (7-methylguanosine and 2′-O-methylcytidine and 2′-O-methyluridine); (b) inducer-treated MEL cells exhibited a decrease in the intracellular level of SAH that led to a lower ratio of SAH/SAM, an event that favors methylation; and (c) treatment of MEL cells with inhibitors of RNA methylation suppressed methylation of poly(A)− and poly(A)+ RNA, reversed the ratio SAH/SAM seen in differentiated MEL cells and prevented differentiation to occur. Moreover, we observed that treatment of MEL cells with selective inhibitors of RNA methylation caused fragmentation of βmayor globin and c-myc mRNAs, two RNA transcripts coded by developmentally regulated genes, while had no detectable effect on the structural integrity of poly(A)+ RNA transcripts transcribed by two housekeeping genes (β-actin and MER5). These data indicate that induction of erythroid cell differentiation of MEL cells is associated with changes in methylation of poly(A)+ RNA and selective differential stability of RNA transcripts, two events that might be related to each other

    miR-16-5p Promotes Erythroid Maturation of Erythroleukemia Cells by Regulating Ribosome Biogenesis

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    miRNAs constitute a class of non-coding RNA that act as powerful epigenetic regulators in animal and plant cells. In order to identify putative tumor-suppressor miRNAs we profiled the expression of various miRNAs during differentiation of erythroleukemia cells. RNA was purified before and after differentiation induction and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR. The majority of the miRNAs tested were found upregulated in differentiated cells with miR-16-5p showing the most significant increase. Functional studies using gain- and loss-of-function constructs proposed that miR-16-5p has a role in promoting the erythroid differentiation program of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. In order to identify the underlying mechanism of action, we utilized bioinformatic in-silico platforms that incorporate predictions for the genes targeted by miR-16-5p. Interestingly, ribosome constituents, as well as ribosome biogenesis factors, were overrepresented among the miR-16-5p predicted gene targets. Accordingly, biochemical experiments showed that, indeed, miR-16-5p could modulate the levels of independent ribosomal proteins, and the overall ribosomal levels in cultured cells. In conclusion, miR-16-5p is identified as a differentiation-promoting agent in erythroleukemia cells, demonstrating antiproliferative activity, likely as a result of its ability to target the ribosomal machinery and restore any imbalanced activity imposed by the malignancy and the blockade of differentiation

    Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Atherosclerosis: Explaining Their Pathophysiology, Association and the Role of Incretin-Based Drugs

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    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common complication of type 2 diabetes, and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress and liver cell damage are the major triggers of the severe hepatic inflammation that characterizes NASH, which is highly correlated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Regarding drug therapy, research on the role of GLP-1 analogues and DPP4 inhibitors, novel classes of antidiabetic drugs, is growing. In this review, we outline the association between NASH and atherosclerosis, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the effects of incretin-based drugs, especially GLP-1 RAs, for the therapeutic management of these conditions

    DrugQuest - a text mining workflow for drug association discovery.

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    BackgroundText mining and data integration methods are gaining ground in the field of health sciences due to the exponential growth of bio-medical literature and information stored in biological databases. While such methods mostly try to extract bioentity associations from PubMed, very few of them are dedicated in mining other types of repositories such as chemical databases.ResultsHerein, we apply a text mining approach on the DrugBank database in order to explore drug associations based on the DrugBank "Description", "Indication", "Pharmacodynamics" and "Mechanism of Action" text fields. We apply Name Entity Recognition (NER) techniques on these fields to identify chemicals, proteins, genes, pathways, diseases, and we utilize the TextQuest algorithm to find additional biologically significant words. Using a plethora of similarity and partitional clustering techniques, we group the DrugBank records based on their common terms and investigate possible scenarios why these records are clustered together. Different views such as clustered chemicals based on their textual information, tag clouds consisting of Significant Terms along with the terms that were used for clustering are delivered to the user through a user-friendly web interface.ConclusionsDrugQuest is a text mining tool for knowledge discovery: it is designed to cluster DrugBank records based on text attributes in order to find new associations between drugs. The service is freely available at http://bioinformatics.med.uoc.gr/drugquest
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