353 research outputs found

    Antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities of South African Salvia species and isolated compounds from S. chamelaeagnea

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    Extracts of 16 South African Salvia species commonly used in traditional medicine to treat various microbial infections were investigated for in vitro antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities using the micro-dilution and respiratory BACTEC method, respectively. The micro-organisms tested include two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus); two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains and the common pathogen responsible for tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extracts of the majority of species exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.03 to 8.00 mg/ml. Promising activity was observed against M. tuberculosis (MIC ‚ȧ 0.50 mg/ml) with S. radula, S. verbenaca and S. dolomitica displaying the most favourable activity (MIC: 0.10 mg/ml). The antibacterial bioassay-guided fractionation of S. chamelaeagnea resulted in the isolation of four compounds: carnosol, 7-O-methylepirosmanol, oleanolic acid and its isomer ursolic acid as the active principles against S. aureus. The in vitro antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities may support the use of Salvia species in traditional medicine to treat microbial infections

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

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    This case report describes chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a professional rower. We consider this to be a rare anatomical location for this type of syndrome. Morever, not much is known about its clinical presentation and the subsequent optimal medical management thereof.

    State hospitals, academic medicine and the decline of health care in South Africa: A cry of support from those who have left for those who stay.

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    Recently a group of concerned South African doctors published a comment on the occupational-specific dispensation negotiations that have failed to address their concerns. As a group of South African trained physicians working out of South Africa we would like to add our voice in support of these concerned doctors. In particular, the South African public and government needs to acknowledge that poor working conditions and inadequate compensation play a large role in the loss of medical skill from South Africa

    Use of pJANUS‚ĄĘ-02-001 as a calibrator plasmid for Roundup Ready soybean event GTS-40-3-2 detection: an interlaboratory trial assessment

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    Owing to the labelling requirements of food and feed products containing materials derived from genetically modified organisms, quantitative detection methods have to be developed for this purpose, including the necessary certified reference materials and calibrator standards. To date, for most genetically modified organisms authorized in the European Union, certified reference materials derived from seed powders are being developed. Here, an assessment has been made on the feasibility of using plasmid DNA as an alternative calibrator for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organisms. For this, a dual-target plasmid, designated as pJANUS‚ĄĘ-02-001, comprising part of a junction region of genetically modified soybean event GTS-40-3-2 and the endogenous soybean-specific lectin gene was constructed. The dynamic range, efficiency and limit of detection for the soybean event GTS-40-3-2 real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) system described by Terry et al. (J AOAC Int 85(4):938‚Äď944, 2002) were shown to be similar for in house produced homozygous genomic DNA from leaf tissue of soybean event GTS-40-3-2 and for plasmid pJANUS‚ĄĘ-02-001 DNA backgrounds. The performance of this real-time Q-PCR system using both types of DNA templates as calibrator standards in quantitative DNA analysis was further assessed in an interlaboratory trial. Statistical analysis and fuzzy-logic-based interpretation were performed on critical method parameters (as defined by the European Network of GMO Laboratories and the Community Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed guidelines) and demonstrated that the plasmid pJANUS‚ĄĘ-02-001 DNA represents a valuable alternative to genomic DNA as a calibrator for the quantification of soybean event GTS-40-3-2 in food and feed products

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta in Osteogenesis imperfecta type XI in South Africa: a genotype‚Äďphenotype correlation

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    BACKGROUND: The maxillofacial and dental manifestations of Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have significant implications in terms of management. Although the occurrence of abnormal dentine in some forms of OI is well documented, there is scant information on the association of abnormal dentine in the Black African persons with phenotypic OI III and genotypic OI XI in South Africa. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytic study. A series of 64 Black South African individuals with a confirmed phenotypic diagnosis of OI III, ages ranging from 3 months to 29 years, were assessed clinically, radiographically, and at a molecular level. RESULTS: A total number of 64 saliva samples were analyzed and 3 DNA variations were identified in exon 5 of the FKBP10 gene. The homozygous mutation, c.[831dupC]; [831dupC], was identified in 23 affected persons who had no clinically obvious features of DI in their primary and secondary teeth. Radiologically, mild features of DI were evident in 10 persons in whom radiographic images were obtained and were given a Clinical‚Äďradiological score of 2. A compound heterozygous mutation, c. [831delC]; [831dupC], was identified in three siblings. An intraoral examination of these affected persons revealed no clinically apparent features of DI in their primary and secondary teeth. Due to the lack of radiological facilities, the presence or absence of DI could not be confirmed or negated. A second compound heterozygous mutation, c.[831dupC]; [1400-4C>G], was identified in a female of 29 years belonging to the Xhosa linguistic group. Her teeth appeared clinically normal but it was not possible to obtain radiographs. In 37 affected individuals, no disease-causing mutations were identified. CONCLUSION: Black African individuals in SA with the homozygous mutation in the FKBP10 gene have clinically unaffected teeth yet exhibited radiographic features of DI to varying degrees. This characterization is suggestive of a relationship between the genetic abnormality and the clinical manifestations of DI. The authors suggest that this diagnosis must include teeth that are clinically and/or radiologically aberrant, and should not exclude the presence of other, milder, dentinal aberrations associated with OI. There was no correlation between severity of OI and DI in this cohort of individuals

    Community-based health workers implementing universal access to HIV testing and treatment: lessons from South Africa and Zambia-HPTN 071 (PopART)

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    The global expansion of HIV testing, prevention and treatment services is necessary to achieve HIV epidemic control and promote individual and population health benefits for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based health workers (CHWs) could play a key role in supporting implementation at scale. In the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in Zambia and South Africa, a cadre of 737 study-specific CHWs, working closely with government-employed CHW, were deployed to deliver a ‚Äėuniversal‚Äô door-to-door HIV prevention package, including an annual offer of HIV testing and referral services for all households in 14 study communities. We conducted a process evaluation using qualitative and quantitative data collected during the trial (2013‚Äď2018) to document the implementation of the CHW intervention in practice. We focused on the recruitment, retention, training and support of CHWs, as they delivered study-specific services. We then used these descriptions to: (i) analyse the fidelity to design of the delivery of the intervention package, and (ii) suggest key insights for the transferability of the intervention to other settings. The data included baseline quantitative data collected with the study-specific CHWs (2014‚Äď2018); and qualitative data from key informant interviews with study management (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ91), observations of CHW training events (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ12) and annual observations of and group discussions (GD) with intervention staff (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ68). We show that it was feasible for newly recruited CHWs to implement the PopART intervention with good fidelity, supporting the interpretation of the trial outcome findings. This was despite some challenges in managing service quality and CHW retention in the early years of the programme. We suggest that by prioritizing the adoption of key elements of the in-home HIV services delivery intervention model‚ÄĒincluding training, emotional support to workers, monitoring and appropriate remuneration for CHWs‚ÄĒthese services could be successfully transferred to new settings

    Diamondites: evidence for a distinct tectono-thermal diamond-forming event beneath the Kaapvaal craton

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    The petrogenesis and relationship of diamondite to well-studied monocrystalline and fibrous diamonds are poorly understood yet would potentially reveal new aspects of how diamond-forming fluids are transported through the lithosphere and equilibrate with surrounding silicates. Of 22 silicate- and oxide-bearing diamondites investigated, most yielded garnet intergrowths (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ15) with major element geochemistry (i.e. Ca‚ÄďCr) classifying these samples as low-Ca websteritic or eclogitic. The garnet REE patterns fit an equilibrium model suggesting the diamond-forming fluid shares an affinity with high-density fluids (HDF) observed in fibrous diamonds, specifically on the join between the saline‚Äďcarbonate end-members. The őī13C values for the diamonds range from ‚ąí 5.27 to ‚ąí 22.48‚Äį (V-PDB) with őī18O values for websteritic garnets ranging from + 7.6 to + 5.9‚Äį (V-SMOW). The combined C‚ÄďO stable isotope data support a model for a hydrothermally altered and organic carbon-bearing subducted crustal source(s) for the diamond- and garnet-forming media. The nitrogen aggregation states of the diamonds require that diamondite-formation event(s) pre-dates fibrous diamond-formation and post-dates most of the gem monocrystalline diamond-formation events at Orapa. The modelled fluid compositions responsible for the precipitation of diamondites match the fluid-poor and fluid-rich (fibrous) monocrystalline diamonds, where all grow from HDFs within the saline-silicic-carbonatitic ternary system. However, while the nature of the parental fluid(s) share a common lithophile element geochemical affinity, the origin(s) of the saline, silicic, and/or carbonatitic components of these HDFs do not always share a common origin. Therefore, it is wholly conceivable that the diamondites are evidence of a distinct and temporally unconstrained tectono-thermal diamond-forming event beneath the Kaapvaal craton

    Desafíos políticos de los países de inmigración

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    13 p√°gs.-- Publicado en "Confluencia XXI. Revista de Pensamiento Pol√≠tico" (M√©xico), n¬ļ 3 (Oct-Dic 2008) bajo el t√≠tulo monogr√°fico "Migrantes: ¬ŅPor qu√© se van? ¬ŅPor qu√© se quedan?".Las migraciones, una pr√°ctica tan antigua como la propia condici√≥n humana, se han convertido en un factor estructural de primer orden, en uno de los macrofen√≥menos m√°s definitorios de nuestra √©poca y en un complejo reto para las sociedades contempor√°neas. En pr√°cticamente todos los pa√≠ses del mundo, todo lo que concierne a este complejo fen√≥meno ocupa un lugar destacado en la agenda pol√≠tica. La gesti√≥n, el control y la integraci√≥n de los movimientos internacionales de personas se presentan como un policy field de creciente y prioritaria relevancia. No se trata, sin embargo, de una cuesti√≥n de mera moda: el n√ļmero de pa√≠ses implicados de manera significativa en las migraciones internacionales ha aumentado considerablemente, hasta el punto de que resulta realmente dif√≠cil encontrar alg√ļn Estado que no sea bien un pa√≠s de inmigraci√≥n, bien un pa√≠s de emigraci√≥n o bien ambas cosas a la vez, cuando no al menos un pa√≠s de tr√°nsito. No ha de extra√Īar entonces que la mayor√≠a de los gobiernos haya tomado conciencia de la necesidad de ofrecer una respuesta en t√©rminos legales e institucionales a un fen√≥meno de car√°cter permanente que puede llegar a alterar la estructura demogr√°fica, social, cultural, econ√≥mica y laboral de un pa√≠s. Dada la complejidad de la cuesti√≥n, y por cuestiones de econom√≠a argumentativa, aqu√≠ se abordar√° de manera fundamental desde la perspectiva de los pa√≠ses receptores, que, por lo dem√°s, es tambi√©n la adoptada en forma habitual por los pa√≠ses europeos que registran mayor inmigraci√≥n. Sin embargo, el fen√≥meno migratorio es fundamentalmente transnacional y tiene fehacientes repercusiones en los pa√≠ses de emigraci√≥n.Peer reviewe
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