491 research outputs found

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of particle–wall impacts in a T-junction

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    Understanding the behaviour of particles entrained in a fluid flow upon changes in flow direction is crucial in problems where particle inertia is important, such as the erosion process in pipe bends.We present results on the impact of particles in a T-shaped channel in the laminar-turbulent transitional regime. The impacting event for a given system is described in terms of the Reynolds number and the particle Stokes number. Experimental results for the impact are compared with the trajectories predicted by theoretical particle tracing models for a range of configurations to determine the role of the viscous boundary layer in retarding the particles and reducing the rate of collision with the substrate. In particular a 2D model based on a stagnation point flow is used together with 3D numerical simulations. We show how the simple 2D model provides a tractable way of understanding the general collision behaviour, while more advanced 3D simulation can be helpful in understanding the details of the flow

    Inhibition of Membrane-Bound BAFF by the Anti-BAFF Antibody Belimumab.

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    B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF, also known as BLyS), a cytokine that regulates homeostasis of peripheral B cells, is elevated in the circulation of patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). BAFF is synthetized as a membrane-bound protein that can be processed to a soluble form after cleavage at a furin consensus sequence, a site that in principle can be recognized by any of the several proteases of the pro-protein convertase family. Belimumab is a human antibody approved for the treatment of SLE, often cited as specific for the soluble form of BAFF. Here we show in different experimental systems, including in a monocytic cell line (U937) that naturally expresses BAFF, that belimumab binds to membrane-bound BAFF with similar EC50 as the positive control atacicept, which is a decoy receptor for both BAFF and the related cytokine APRIL (a proliferation inducing ligand). In U937 cells, binding of both reagents was only detectable in furin-deficient U937 cells, showing that furin is the main BAFF processing protease in these cells. In CHO cells expressing membrane-bound BAFF lacking the stalk region, belimumab inhibited the activity of membrane-bound BAFF less efficiently than atacicept, while in furin-deficient U937 cells, belimumab inhibited membrane-bound BAFF and residual soluble BAFF as efficiently as atacicept. These reagents did not activate complement or antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity upon binding to membrane-bound BAFF in vitro. In conclusion, our data show that belimumab can inhibit membrane-bound BAFF, and that BAFF in U937 cells is processed by furin

    Comparison of accuracy of single crowns generated from digital and conventional impressions: An in vivo controlled trial

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    Aim With the advances of digital technology, intraoral digital impression (DI) technique has become a major trend in prosthodontics with respect to traditional impression (TI) techniques; despite that, very few data are available concerning its accuracy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of DI versus TI considering both marginal and internal gap (MG, IG, respectively) in cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) single crowns manufactured by mean of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Material and methods Thirty posterior teeth were considered for this study. For each abutment tooth, sixty and thirty copings were produced with the aid of TI and DI, respectively. Thirty of the sixty copings of the TI-group were then randomly selected to be veneered and cemented onto existing abutments. The space existing between the internal surface of the coping and the abutment tooth was evaluated onto an in vitro replica; the MG and IG were measured by Scanning Electron Microscope. The data were analysed by the Wilcoxon test (1-tailed). Results The mean MG was 75.04 μm (SD = 13.12) and 55.01 μm (SD = 7.01) for the TI group and DI group, respectively. As regards the mean IGs, the values recorded were of 78.36 μm (SD = 19.66) for the TI-group and 59.20 μm (SD=3.33) for the DI-group. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (p-value = 0.001). Conclusions Copings manufactured from DI showed better MGs and IGs with respect to copings produced from TI. However, both approaches produced clinically acceptable results

    No interactions between heparin and atacicept, an antagonist of B cell survival cytokines.

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    The TNF family ligands, B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF, also known as B lymphocyte stimulator, BLyS) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), share the transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML)-interactor (TACI) as one of their common receptors. Atacicept, a chimeric recombinant TACI/IgG1-Fc fusion protein, inhibits both ligands. TACI and APRIL also bind to proteoglycans and to heparin that is structurally related to proteoglycans. It is unknown whether the portion of TACI contained in atacicept can bind directly to proteoglycans, or indirectly via APRIL, and whether this could interfere with the anti-coagulant properties of heparin. Binding of atacicept and APRIL to proteoglycan-positive cells was measured by FACS. Activities of heparin and atacicept were measured with activated factor Xa inhibition and cell-based assays. Effects of heparin on circulating atacicept was monitored in mice. Atacicept did not bind to proteoglycan-positive cells, but when complexed to APRIL could do so indirectly via APRIL. Multimers of atacicept obtained after exposure to cysteine or BAFF 60-mer bound directly to proteoglycans. Atacicept alone, or in complex with APRIL, or in a multimeric form did not interfere with heparin activity in vitro. Conversely, heparin did not influence inhibition of BAFF and APRIL by atacicept and did not change circulating levels of atacicept. Lack of detectable interference of APRIL-bound or free atacicept on heparin activity makes it unlikely that atacicept at therapeutic doses will interfere with the function of heparin in vivo

    First measurement of Ξc0\Xi_{\rm c}^0 production in pp collisions at s\mathbf{\sqrt{s}} = 7 TeV

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    The production of the charm-strange baryon Ξc0\Xi_{\rm c}^0 is measured for the first time at the LHC via its semileptonic decay into e+Ξνe^+\Xi^-\nu_{\rm e} in pp collisions at s=7\sqrt{s}=7 TeV with the ALICE detector. The transverse momentum (pTp_{\rm T}) differential cross section multiplied by the branching ratio is presented in the interval 1 << pTp_{\rm T} << 8 GeV/cc at mid-rapidity, y|y| << 0.5. The transverse momentum dependence of the Ξc0\Xi_{\rm c}^0 baryon production relative to the D0^0 meson production is compared to predictions of event generators with various tunes of the hadronisation mechanism, which are found to underestimate the measured cross-section ratio.Comment: 22 pages, 6 captioned figures, 1 table, authors from page 17, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/412

    Constraining the magnitude of the Chiral Magnetic Effect with Event Shape Engineering in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

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    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow v2v_2 reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two- and three-particle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =2.76 TeV. The two-particle correlator cos(φαφβ)\langle \cos(\varphi_\alpha - \varphi_\beta) \rangle, calculated for different combinations of charges α\alpha and β\beta, is almost independent of v2v_2 (for a given centrality), while the three-particle correlator cos(φα+φβ2Ψ2)\langle \cos(\varphi_\alpha + \varphi_\beta - 2\Psi_2) \rangle scales almost linearly both with the event v2v_2 and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on v2v_2 points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10-50% centrality interval is found to be 26-33% at 95% confidence level.Comment: 20 pages, 6 captioned figures, 1 tables, authors from page 15, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/382

    Stoichiometry of Heteromeric BAFF and APRIL Cytokines Dictates Their Receptor Binding and Signaling Properties.

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    The closely related TNF family ligands B cell activation factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) serve in the generation and maintenance of mature B-lymphocytes. Both BAFF and APRIL assemble as homotrimers that bind and activate several receptors that they partially share. However, heteromers of BAFF and APRIL that occur in patients with autoimmune diseases are incompletely characterized. The N and C termini of adjacent BAFF or APRIL monomers are spatially close and can be linked to create single-chain homo- or hetero-ligands of defined stoichiometry. Similar to APRIL, heteromers consisting of one BAFF and two APRILs (BAA) bind to the receptors B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) but not to the BAFF receptor (BAFFR). Heteromers consisting of one APRIL and two BAFF (ABB) bind to TACI and BCMA and weakly to BAFFR in accordance with the analysis of the receptor interaction sites in the crystallographic structure of ABB. Receptor binding correlated with activity in reporter cell line assays specific for BAFFR, TACI, or BCMA. Single-chain BAFF (BBB) and to a lesser extent single-chain ABB, but not APRIL or single-chain BAA, rescued BAFFR-dependent B cell maturation in BAFF-deficient mice. In conclusion, BAFF-APRIL heteromers of different stoichiometries have distinct receptor-binding properties and activities. Based on the observation that heteromers are less active than BAFF, we speculate that their physiological role might be to down-regulate BAFF activity
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