12 research outputs found

    Charity and Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Public Charities in Arkansas 2006-2010

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    In 2010, public charities in Arkansas had a total economic impact of 13,505,145,972.Arkansasnonprofitorganizationsemployedanestimated93,095individualsin2010,representingnearly7percent(6.813,505,145,972. Arkansas nonprofit organizations employed an estimated 93,095 individuals in 2010, representing nearly 7 percent (6.8%) of the state's available labor force. In addition to these impressive numbers, public charities in the state provide a host of services to Arkansans -- from educational opportunities to health care to housing, shelter, and food.Nonprofit organizations are legal entities formed to provide services and programs. These organizations typically engage in activities without financial profit, although these organizations may retain excess revenue. Nonprofit revenue in excess of cost are untaxed and may be saved for future use. This report describes the Arkansas nonprofit sector in terms of its activities, composition, employment levels, and employee earnings. Upon providing a portrait of nonprofit organizations, the report offers an assessment of the nonprofit sector's economic effect on the state economy.Data for this study are from the Urban Institute's National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), and are comprised of IRS Form 990 and Form 990-EZ filings for all registered 501(c)(3) public charities in Arkansas with over 25,000 in total revenue per year. Data for calendar years 2006 through 2010 are analyzed for this study; data for 2011 and 2012 are not yet available.In examining only those organizations with more than 25,000inrevenue,thisstudyrepresentsapproximatelyone‚ąíthirdofallnonprofitsregisteredinArkansasasnodataareavailablefororganizationswithtotalrevenueunder25,000 in revenue, this study represents approximately one-third of all nonprofits registered in Arkansas as no data are available for organizations with total revenue under 25,000 (these organizations are not required to file annual reports to the IRS). These data include information only for public charities, which are guided by 501(c)(3) rules. In doing so, this report excludes information about private foundations, churches, social and fraternal organizations, or other groups considered tax-exempt under other sections of the tax code. Consequently, results presented in this report actually understate the true effects of the nonprofit sector for Arkansas. Therefore, when discussing results about nonprofits in Arkansas, this research is addressing the effect of service provided by public charities onl

    Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in a UK university identifies dynamics of transmission

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    AbstractUnderstanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission in higher education settings is important to limit spread between students, and into at-risk populations. In this study, we sequenced 482 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the University of Cambridge from 5 October to 6 December 2020. We perform a detailed phylogenetic comparison with 972 isolates from the surrounding community, complemented with epidemiological and contact tracing data, to determine transmission dynamics. We observe limited viral introductions into the university; the majority of student cases were linked to a single genetic cluster, likely following social gatherings at a venue outside the university. We identify considerable onward transmission associated with student accommodation and courses; this was effectively contained using local infection control measures and following a national lockdown. Transmission clusters were largely segregated within the university or the community. Our study highlights key determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and effective interventions in a higher education setting that will inform public health policy during pandemics.</jats:p

    Race and pain: A dual injustice

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    The evidence presented in this chapter highlights the existence of a dual injustice-members of nondominant racial groups are more than likely to experience pain, while these same individuals are also more than likely to have their pain discounted by and undertreated by healthcare professionals. Evidence is presented from numerous national, racial, and ethnic contexts, and this chapter utilizes evidence that crosses historical, social, psychological, biological, and medical research. The antecedents, consequences, causes, and potential solutions to this dual injustice are examined and discussed with the recognition that the literal pain and suffering of people of color is at stake

    Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals

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    Abstract Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency &gt; 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to similar to 1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ‚ȧ 0.01) variant BP associations (P &lt; 5 x 10(‚ĀĽ‚Āł)), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were similar to 8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 16 March 2021

    Publisher Correction:Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals (Nature Genetics, (2020), 52, 12, (1314-1332), 10.1038/s41588-020-00713-x)

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    Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency‚ÄČ&gt;‚ÄČ0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency‚ÄȂȧ‚ÄČ0.01) variant BP associations (P‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ5‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets
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