289 research outputs found

    A localic theory of lower and upper integrals

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    An account of lower and upper integration is given. It is constructive in the sense of geometric logic. If the integrand takes its values in the non-negative lower reals, then its lower integral with respect to a valuation is a lower real. If the integrand takes its values in the non-negative upper reals,then its upper integral with respect to a covaluation and with domain of integration bounded by a compact subspace is an upper real. Spaces of valuations and of covaluations are defined. Riemann and Choquet integrals can be calculated in terms of these lower and upper integrals

    Computable decision making on the reals and other spaces via partiality and nondeterminism

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    Though many safety-critical software systems use floating point to represent real-world input and output, programmers usually have idealized versions in mind that compute with real numbers. Significant deviations from the ideal can cause errors and jeopardize safety. Some programming systems implement exact real arithmetic, which resolves this matter but complicates others, such as decision making. In these systems, it is impossible to compute (total and deterministic) discrete decisions based on connected spaces such as R\mathbb{R}. We present programming-language semantics based on constructive topology with variants allowing nondeterminism and/or partiality. Either nondeterminism or partiality suffices to allow computable decision making on connected spaces such as R\mathbb{R}. We then introduce pattern matching on spaces, a language construct for creating programs on spaces, generalizing pattern matching in functional programming, where patterns need not represent decidable predicates and also may overlap or be inexhaustive, giving rise to nondeterminism or partiality, respectively. Nondeterminism and/or partiality also yield formal logics for constructing approximate decision procedures. We implemented these constructs in the Marshall language for exact real arithmetic.Comment: This is an extended version of a paper due to appear in the proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS) in July 201

    Entailment systems for stably locally compact locales

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    The category SCFrU of stably continuous frames and preframe ho-momorphisms (preserving ¯nite meets and directed joins) is dual to the Karoubi envelope of a category Ent whose objects are sets and whose morphisms X ! Y are upper closed relations between the ¯nite powersets FX and FY . Composition of these morphisms is the \cut composition" of Jung et al. that interfaces disjunction in the codomains with conjunctions in the domains, and thereby relates to their multi-lingual sequent calculus. Thus stably locally compact locales are represented by \entailment systems" (X; `) in which `, a generalization of entailment relations,is idempotent for cut composition. Some constructions on stably locally compact locales are represented in terms of entailment systems: products, duality and powerlocales. Relational converse provides Ent with an involution, and this gives a simple treatment of the duality of stably locally compact locales. If A and B are stably continuous frames, then the internal preframe hom A t B is isomorphic to e A ­ B where e A is the Hofmann-Lawson dual. For a stably locally compact locale X, the lower powerlocale of X is shown to be the dual of the upper powerlocale of the dual of X

    The connected Vietoris powerlocale

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    The connected Vietoris powerlocale is defined as a strong monad Vc on the category of locales. VcX is a sublocale of Johnstone's Vietoris powerlocale VX, a localic analogue of the Vietoris hyperspace, and its points correspond to the weakly semifitted sublocales of X that are “strongly connected”. A product map ×:VcX×VcY→Vc(X×Y) shows that the product of two strongly connected sublocales is strongly connected. If X is locally connected then VcX is overt. For the localic completion of a generalized metric space Y, the points of are certain Cauchy filters of formal balls for the finite power set with respect to a Vietoris metric. \ud Application to the point-free real line gives a choice-free constructive version of the Intermediate Value Theorem and Rolle's Theorem. \ud \ud The work is topos-valid (assuming natural numbers object). Vc is a geometric constructio

    A Language for Configuring Multi-level Specifications

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    This paper shows how systems can be built from their component parts with specified sharing. Its principle contribution is a modular language for configuring systems. A configuration is a description in the new language of how a system is constructed hierarchically from specifications of its component parts. Category theory has been used to represent the composition of specifications that share a component part by constructing colimits of diagrams. We reformulated this application of category theory to view both configured specifications and their diagrams as algebraic presentations of presheaves. The framework of presheaves leads naturally to a configuration language that expresses structuring from instances of specifications, and also incorporates a new notion of instance reduction to extract the component instances from a particular configuration. The language now expresses the hierarchical structuring of multi-level configured specifications. The syntax is simple because it is independent of any specification language; structuring a diagram to represent a configuration is simple because there is no need to calculate a colimit; and combining specifications is simple because structuring is by configuration morphisms with no need to flatten either specifications or their diagrams to calculate colimits

    Partial Horn logic and cartesian categories

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    A logic is developed in which function symbols are allowed to represent partial functions. It has the usual rules of logic (in the form of a sequent calculus) except that the substitution rule has to be modified. It is developed here in its minimal form, with equality and conjunction, as “partial Horn logic”. Various kinds of logical theory are equivalent: partial Horn theories, “quasi-equational” theories (partial Horn theories without predicate symbols), cartesian theories and essentially algebraic theories. The logic is sound and complete with respect to models in , and sound with respect to models in any cartesian (finite limit) category. The simplicity of the quasi-equational form allows an easy predicative constructive proof of the free partial model theorem for cartesian theories: that if a theory morphism is given from one cartesian theory to another, then the forgetful (reduct) functor from one model category to the other has a left adjoint. Various examples of quasi-equational theory are studied, including those of cartesian categories and of other classes of categories. For each quasi-equational theory another, , is constructed, whose models are cartesian categories equipped with models of . Its initial model, the “classifying category” for , has properties similar to those of the syntactic category, but more precise with respect to strict cartesian functors

    A Universal Characterization of the Double Powerlocale

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    This is a version from 29 Sept 2003 of the paper published under the same name in Theoretical Computer Science 316 (2004) 297{321. The double powerlocale P(X) (found by composing, in either order,the upper and lower powerlocale constructions PU and PL) is shown to be isomorphic in [Locop; Set] to the double exponential SSX where S is the Sierpinski locale. Further PU(X) and PL(X) are shown to be the subobjects P(X) comprising, respectively, the meet semilattice and join semilattice homomorphisms. A key lemma shows that, for any locales X and Y , natural transformations from SX (the presheaf Loc

    Positivity relations on a locale

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    This paper analyses the notion of a positivity relationof Formal Topology from the point of view of the theory of Locales. It is shown that a positivity relation on a locale corresponds to a suitable class of points of its lower powerlocale. In particular, closed subtopologies associated to the positivity relation correspond to overt (that is, with open domain) weakly closed sublocales. Finally, some connection is revealed between positivity relations and localic suplattices (these are algebras for the powerlocale monad)

    Presenting dcpos and dcpo algebras

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    Dcpos can be presented by preorders of generators and inequational relations expressed as covers. Algebraic operations on the generators (possibly with their results being ideals of generators) can be extended to the dcpo presented, provided the covers are “stable” for the operations. The resulting dcpo algebra has a natural universal characterization and satisfies all the inequational laws satisfied by the generating algebra. Applications include known “coverage theorems” from locale theory
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