119 research outputs found

    Self- and proxy-reported impaired social interaction in young adults with simple congenital heart defects

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    BackgroundSimple Congenital Heart Defects such as septal defects constitute a large proportion of Congenital Heart Defects. New research has demonstrated more co-morbidities than previously thought. In particular, co-morbidities involving neurocognitive, psychiatric, and social difficulties have been described. Neurocognitive and psychiatric morbidities affect social interaction. Social interaction is important in everyday social life (education, work life, family life). In this study, we investigated social interaction through self- and proxy-answered Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS-2) in young adults with simple Congenital Heart Defects and compared their social interaction profile to healthy matched controls.MethodsWe included a total of 80 patients with either atrial or ventricular septal defect (age 26.6 years) and 38 heart-healthy, age, sex, and ISCED educational matched controls (age: 25.3 years). A close relative proxy from each participant took part in the study as well. All participants answered the Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS-2) (n = 225). Our primary and secondary outcomes were the SRS-2 Total score and the SRS-2 sub-scores.ResultsIn the Congenital Heart Defects group, 31.3% had a Total score above 60 compared to 7.9% in the control group (p = 0.005, RR = 3.96). The participants with a septal defect had a higher Total score (52.5 vs. 45.5, p = 0.004), a higher Social Cognition sub-score (55.0 vs. 47.0, p = 0.0004), and a higher Social Motivation sub-score (50.0 vs. 45.0, p = 0.003) than the heart-healthy participants. We found no difference between the two groups regarding the sub-scores of Social Awareness and Social Communication. A multiple linear regression model showed that the variable that explained most of the variation in Total Score was having a previously diagnosed psychiatric disorder.ConclusionWe found that young adults with atrial or ventricular septal defects have a fourfold increased risk of social interaction difficulties compared to heart-healthy peers. They have a social interaction profile, with difficulties in social cognition and social motivation, and preserved social awareness and social communication. Psychiatric morbidity explained most of the variation in social interaction problems. As social difficulties and psychiatric morbidities are intertwined, social interaction difficulties could be an indication of already underlying psychiatric morbidities or a risk factor for future psychiatric morbidity

    Evaluating Vitamin D levels in Rheumatic Heart Disease patients and matched control: A case-control study from Nepal

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    BackgroundDiagnosis and treatment for Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is inaccessible for many of the 33 million people in low and middle income countries living with this disease. More knowledge about risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved is needed in order to prevent disease and optimize treatment. This study investigated risk factors in a Nepalese population, with a special focus on Vitamin D deficiency because of its immunomodulatory effects.MethodsNinety-nine patients with confirmed RHD diagnosis and 97 matched, cardiac-healthy controls selected by echocardiography were recruited from hospitals in the Central and Western region of Nepal. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using dried blood spots and anthropometric values measured to evaluate nutritional status. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to define association between vitamin D deficiency and RHD.ResultsThe mean age of RHD patients was 31 years (range 9-70) and for healthy controls 32 years (range 9-65), with a 4:1 female to male ratio. Vitamin D levels were lower than expected in both RDH and controls. RHD patients had lower vitamin D levels than controls with a mean s-25(OH)D concentration of 39 nmol/l (range 8.7-89.4) compared with controls 45 nmol/l (range 14.5-86.7) (p-value = 0.02). People with Vitamin D insufficiency had a higher risk (OR = 2.59; 95% CI: 1.04-6.50) of also having RHD compared to people with Vitamin D concentrations >50 nmol/l. Body mass index was significantly lower in RHD patients (22.6; 95% CI, 21.5-23.2) compared to controls (24.2; 95% CI, 23.3-25.1).ConclusionRHD patients in Nepal have lower Vitamin D levels and overall poor nutritional status compared to the non-RHD controls. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore the causality between RHD and vitamin D level. Future research is also recommended among Nepali general population to confirm the low level of vitamin D as reported in our control group

    Statin initiation and acute kidney injury following elective cardiovascular surgery: a population cohort study in Denmark

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    OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of cardiac surgery. Statins may prevent post-surgical AKI, yet methodological concerns about existing studies raise questions about the magnitude of a protective effect. We sought to determine the effect of initiating a statin prior to elective cardiac surgery on post-surgical AKI in a regional Danish surgical cohort. METHODS: We identified adults who underwent cardiac surgery during 2006-11 using the Western Denmark Heart Registry. Presurgical medication use, pre- and post-surgical serum creatinine (sCr) measures, and other patient characteristics were obtained from Danish population-based registries. Post-surgical AKI was assessed using sCr measures within 5 days of surgery. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) of AKI and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for patients who initiated a statin within 100 days prior to surgery compared with patients without prior statin use; long-term statin users were excluded to reduce healthy-user bias. Subanalyses were stratified by surgery type: coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and non-CABG surgeries. RESULTS: We identified 1929 CABG and 1775 non-CABG patients. AKI occurred in 25% of CABG and 28% of non-CABG surgeries, and in 29% of the non-users and 21% of the statin initiators. Half of CABG patients and 9% of non-CABG patients initiated a statin prior to surgery. The adjusted RRs for the effect of statin initiation on AKI were as follows: all surgeries combined, RR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.98); CABG, RR = 0.88 (0.74, 1.05); non-CABG RR = 0.87 (0.68, 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical statin initiation is associated with a reduction in AKI risk after cardiac surgery

    Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

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    Aims Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. Methods and results We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41 specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly more or less often than expected in families. The data show that distinct groups of cardiac malformations co-occur in families, suggesting influence from underlying developmental mechanisms. Analysis of human and mouse susceptibility genes showed that they were shared in 19% and 20% of pairs of co-occurring discordant malformations, respectively, but none of malformations that rarely co-occur, suggesting that a significant proportion of co-occurring lesions in families is caused by overlapping susceptibility genes. Conclusion Familial CHD follow specific patterns of recurrence, suggesting a strong influence from genetically regulated developmental mechanisms. Co-occurrence of malformations in families is caused by shared susceptibility genes

    Insulin resistance, adiponectin and adverse outcomes following elective cardiac surgery: a prospective follow-up study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Insulin resistance and adiponectin are markers of cardio-metabolic disease and associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The present study examined whether preoperative insulin resistance or adiponectin were associated with short- and long-term adverse outcomes in non-diabetic patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In a prospective study, we assessed insulin resistance and adiponectin levels from preoperative fasting blood samples in 836 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Population-based medical registries were used for postoperative follow-up. Outcomes included all-cause death, myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention, stroke, re-exploration, renal failure, and infections. The ability of insulin resistance and adiponectin to predict clinical adverse outcomes was examined using receiver operating characteristics.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Neither insulin resistance nor adiponectin were statistically significantly associated with 30-day mortality, but adiponectin was associated with an increased 31-365-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 [95% confidence interval 1.3-6.4]) comparing the upper quartile with the three lower quartiles. Insulin resistance was a poor predictor of adverse outcomes. In contrast, the predictive accuracy of adiponectin (area under curve 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.65-0.85]) was similar to that of the EuroSCORE (area under curve 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.67-0.83]) and a model including adiponectin and the EuroSCORE had an area under curve of 0.78 [95% confidence interval 0.68-0.88] concerning 31-365-day mortality.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Elevated adiponectin levels, but not insulin resistance, were associated with increased mortality and appear to be a strong predictor of long-term mortality. Additional studies are warranted to further clarify the possible clinical role of adiponectin assessment in cardiac surgery.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>The Danish Data Protection Agency; reference no. 2007-41-1514.</p