1,325 research outputs found

    Effects of Douglas fir stand age on soil chemical properties, nutrient dynamics, and enzyme activity: A case study in Northern Apennines, Italy

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    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a Douglas fir plantation along a stand chronosequence in the North Apennine (Italy) on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, as well as on soil chemical and biochemical properties involved in the nutrients biogeochemical cycle. In 2014, three sites of Douglas fir stands, aged 80, 100, and 120 years, were selected in Vallombrosa forest to study the dynamics of soil nutrients in the ecosystem. Along the Douglas fir chronosequence, general evidence of surface element accumulation was found, including a conspicuous increase of alkaline element with respect to Al, which was attributed to the increase of soil pH along the Douglas fir stand age classes. A general increase of specific enzyme activity (per unit of organic carbon) and functional diversity were observed in the epipedon of the Douglas fir stand over 100 years of age. Moreover, the (chitinase + leucine aminopeptidase) to acid phosphatase ratio progressively increased from 0.15 to 0.31 in the epipedon of the chrononsequence, while the -glucosidase to (chitinase + leucine aminopeptidase) ratio decreased from 1.45 to 0.83, suggesting nitrogen limitation with respect to carbon. In fact, the soil carbon stock progressively increased along the chronosequence, in the epipedon from 17 to 53 Mg C ha(-1) and in the endopedon from 17 to 37 Mg C ha(-1). Conversely, the soil nitrogen stock increased from 1.2 to 2.4 Mg N ha(-1), but not over the 100-year-old stand class. In conclusion, soil organic matter accumulation became sufficient to define the umbric horizon in the Northern Apennines when the Douglas fir plantation reached the age of 100 years. Over this age class of plants, a limitation of soil nitrogen may occur, affecting enzyme activities regulating the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients

    Development and characterization of new microsatellites for Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae).

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    Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analyses of the Neotropical tree Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae), after construction of a shotgun genomic library for microsatellite discovery. Nine primers were designed, of which 5 yielded amplified product. These primers were polymorphic for 97 individuals collected in 3 distinct localities. The number of alleles per locus (primer) ranged from 3 to 11 and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.309 to 0.884. The probability of locus identity was ~1.88 x 10-4 and the probability of paternity exclusion was ~0.9367. The 5 microsatellite primer pairs may be suitable for population genetic studies such as parentage and fine-scale genetic analyses of this species

    The dust-scattering X-ray rings of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408

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    On 2009 January 22 numerous strong bursts were detected from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408. Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton/EPIC observations carried out in the following two weeks led to the discovery of three X-ray rings centered on this source. The ring radii increased with time following the expansion law expected for a short impulse of X-rays scattered by three dust clouds. Assuming different models for the dust composition and grain size distribution, we fit the intensity decay of each ring as a function of time at different energies, obtaining tight constrains on the distance of the X-ray source. Although the distance strongly depends on the adopted dust model, we find that some models are incompatible with our X-ray data, restricting to 4-8 kpc the range of possible distances for 1E 1547.0-5408. The best-fitting dust model provides a source distance of 3.91 +/- 0.07 kpc, which is compatible with the proposed association with the supernova remnant G 327.24-0.13, and implies distances of 2.2 kpc, 2.6 kpc and 3.4 kpc for the dust clouds, in good agreement with the dust distribution inferred by CO line observations towards 1E 1547.0-5408. However, dust distances in agreement with CO data are also obtained for a set of similarly well-fitting models that imply a source distance of about 5 kpc. A distance of about 4-5 kpc is also favored by the fact that these dust models are already known to provide good fits to the dust-scattering halos of bright X-ray binaries.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal; 10 pages in emulate-apj style, 3 tables, 5 color figures. Note: abstract truncated; full abstract in the pape

    Aspectos fisiol√≥gicos e agron√īmicos de feijoeiro comum cultivado sob condi√ß√Ķes de baixa disponibilidade h√≠drica.

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    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar aspectos fisiol√≥gicos e agron√īmicos de gen√≥tipos de feijoeiro comum, com caracter√≠sticas contrastantes para toler√Ęncia √† defici√™ncia h√≠drica

    To what extent can dynamical models describe statistical features of turbulent flows?

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    Statistical features of "bursty" behaviour in charged and neutral fluid turbulence, are compared to statistics of intermittent events in a GOY shell model, and avalanches in different models of Self Organized Criticality (SOC). It is found that inter-burst times show a power law distribution for turbulent samples and for the shell model, a property which is shared only in a particular case of the running sandpile model. The breakdown of self-similarity generated by isolated events observed in the turbulent samples, is well reproduced by the shell model, while it is absent in all SOC models considered. On this base, we conclude that SOC models are not adequate to mimic fluid turbulence, while the GOY shell model constitutes a better candidate to describe the gross features of turbulence.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, in press on Europhys. Lett. (may 2002

    An√°lise de polimorfismo de locos micross√°telites em feijoeiro comum.

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    Nesse estudo foi avaliada a gera√ß√£o F5:6 do cruzamento P√©rola x Bat477, cultivares contrastantes para a caracter√≠sticas de toler√Ęncia a seca. Foi avaliado, quanto ao polimorfismo, um conjunto superior a 500 marcadores, por√©m o polimorfismo existente entre os parentais √© pequeno e gira em torno de 10%

    Statistical features of edge turbulence in RFX-mod from Gas Puffing Imaging

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    Plasma density fluctuations in the edge plasma of the RFX-mod device are measured through the Gas Puffing Imaging Diagnostics. Statistical features of the signal are quantified in terms of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF), and computed for several kinds of discharges. The PDFs from discharges without particular control methods are found to be adequately described by a Gamma function, consistently with the recent results by Graves et al [J.P. Graves, et al, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, L1 (2005)]. On the other hand, pulses with external methods for plasma control feature modified PDFs. A first empirical analysis suggests that they may be interpolated through a linear combination of simple functions. An inspection of the literature shows that this kind of PDFs is common to other devices as well, and has been suggested to be due to the simultaneous presence of different mechanisms driving respectively coherent bursts and gaussian background turbulence. An attempt is made to relate differences in the PDFs to plasma conditions such as the local shift of the plasma column. A simple phenomenological model to interpret the nature of the PDF and assign a meaning to its parameters is also developed.Comment: 27 pages. Published in PPC
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