3,178 research outputs found

    Sampling and Reconstruction of Spatial Fields using Mobile Sensors

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    Spatial sampling is traditionally studied in a static setting where static sensors scattered around space take measurements of the spatial field at their locations. In this paper we study the emerging paradigm of sampling and reconstructing spatial fields using sensors that move through space. We show that mobile sensing offers some unique advantages over static sensing in sensing time-invariant bandlimited spatial fields. Since a moving sensor encounters such a spatial field along its path as a time-domain signal, a time-domain anti-aliasing filter can be employed prior to sampling the signal received at the sensor. Such a filtering procedure, when used by a configuration of sensors moving at constant speeds along equispaced parallel lines, leads to a complete suppression of spatial aliasing in the direction of motion of the sensors. We analytically quantify the advantage of using such a sampling scheme over a static sampling scheme by computing the reduction in sampling noise due to the filter. We also analyze the effects of non-uniform sensor speeds on the reconstruction accuracy. Using simulation examples we demonstrate the advantages of mobile sampling over static sampling in practical problems. We extend our analysis to sampling and reconstruction schemes for monitoring time-varying bandlimited fields using mobile sensors. We demonstrate that in some situations we require a lower density of sensors when using a mobile sensing scheme instead of the conventional static sensing scheme. The exact advantage is quantified for a problem of sampling and reconstructing an audio field.Comment: Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing May 2012; revised Oct 201

    Network correlated data gathering with explicit communication: NP-completeness and algorithms

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    We consider the problem of correlated data gathering by a network with a sink node and a tree-based communication structure, where the goal is to minimize the total transmission cost of transporting the information collected by the nodes, to the sink node. For source coding of correlated data, we consider a joint entropy-based coding model with explicit communication where coding is simple and the transmission structure optimization is difficult. We first formulate the optimization problem definition in the general case and then we study further a network setting where the entropy conditioning at nodes does not depend on the amount of side information, but only on its availability. We prove that even in this simple case, the optimization problem is NP-hard. We propose some efficient, scalable, and distributed heuristic approximation algorithms for solving this problem and show by numerical simulations that the total transmission cost can be significantly improved over direct transmission or the shortest path tree. We also present an approximation algorithm that provides a tree transmission structure with total cost within a constant factor from the optimal

    Omnidirectional Bats, Point-to-Plane Distances, and the Price of Uniqueness

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    We study simultaneous localization and mapping with a device that uses reflections to measure its distance from walls. Such a device can be realized acoustically with a synchronized collocated source and receiver; it behaves like a bat with no capacity for directional hearing or vocalizing. In this paper we generalize our previous work in 2D, and show that the 3D case is not just a simple extension, but rather a fundamentally different inverse problem. While generically the 2D problem has a unique solution, in 3D uniqueness is always absent in rooms with fewer than nine walls. In addition to the complete characterization of ambiguities which arise due to this non-uniqueness, we propose a robust solution for inexact measurements similar to analogous results for Euclidean Distance Matrices. Our theoretical results have important consequences for the design of collocated range-only SLAM systems, and we support them with an array of computer experiments.Comment: 5 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ICASSP 201

    Shapes from Echoes: Uniqueness from Point-to-Plane Distance Matrices

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    We study the problem of localizing a configuration of points and planes from the collection of point-to-plane distances. This problem models simultaneous localization and mapping from acoustic echoes as well as the notable "structure from sound" approach to microphone localization with unknown sources. In our earlier work we proposed computational methods for localization from point-to-plane distances and noted that such localization suffers from various ambiguities beyond the usual rigid body motions; in this paper we provide a complete characterization of uniqueness. We enumerate equivalence classes of configurations which lead to the same distance measurements as a function of the number of planes and points, and algebraically characterize the related transformations in both 2D and 3D. Here we only discuss uniqueness; computational tools and heuristics for practical localization from point-to-plane distances using sound will be addressed in a companion paper.Comment: 13 pages, 13 figure

    Look, no Beacons! Optimal All-in-One EchoSLAM

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    We study the problem of simultaneously reconstructing a polygonal room and a trajectory of a device equipped with a (nearly) collocated omnidirectional source and receiver. The device measures arrival times of echoes of pulses emitted by the source and picked up by the receiver. No prior knowledge about the device's trajectory is required. Most existing approaches addressing this problem assume multiple sources or receivers, or they assume that some of these are static, serving as beacons. Unlike earlier approaches, we take into account the measurement noise and various constraints on the geometry by formulating the solution as a minimizer of a cost function similar to \emph{stress} in multidimensional scaling. We study uniqueness of the reconstruction from first-order echoes, and we show that in addition to the usual invariance to rigid motions, new ambiguities arise for important classes of rooms and trajectories. We support our theoretical developments with a number of numerical experiments.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures, submitted to Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers Websit

    Distributed Successive Approximation Coding using Broadcast Advantage: The Two-Encoder Case

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    Traditional distributed source coding rarely considers the possible link between separate encoders. However, the broadcast nature of wireless communication in sensor networks provides a free gossip mechanism which can be used to simplify encoding/decoding and reduce transmission power. Using this broadcast advantage, we present a new two-encoder scheme which imitates the ping-pong game and has a successive approximation structure. For the quadratic Gaussian case, we prove that this scheme is successively refinable on the {sum-rate, distortion pair} surface, which is characterized by the rate-distortion region of the distributed two-encoder source coding. A potential energy saving over conventional distributed coding is also illustrated. This ping-pong distributed coding idea can be extended to the multiple encoder case and provides the theoretical foundation for a new class of distributed image coding method in wireless scenarios.Comment: In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, University of Illinois, Monticello, IL, September 29 - October 1, 201

    Raking the Cocktail Party

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    We present the concept of an acoustic rake receiver---a microphone beamformer that uses echoes to improve the noise and interference suppression. The rake idea is well-known in wireless communications; it involves constructively combining different multipath components that arrive at the receiver antennas. Unlike spread-spectrum signals used in wireless communications, speech signals are not orthogonal to their shifts. Therefore, we focus on the spatial structure, rather than temporal. Instead of explicitly estimating the channel, we create correspondences between early echoes in time and image sources in space. These multiple sources of the desired and the interfering signal offer additional spatial diversity that we can exploit in the beamformer design. We present several "intuitive" and optimal formulations of acoustic rake receivers, and show theoretically and numerically that the rake formulation of the maximum signal-to-interference-and-noise beamformer offers significant performance boosts in terms of noise and interference suppression. Beyond signal-to-noise ratio, we observe gains in terms of the \emph{perceptual evaluation of speech quality} (PESQ) metric for the speech quality. We accompany the paper by the complete simulation and processing chain written in Python. The code and the sound samples are available online at \url{http://lcav.github.io/AcousticRakeReceiver/}.Comment: 12 pages, 11 figures, Accepted for publication in IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing (Special Issue on Spatial Audio

    Sampling and Reconstruction of Shapes with Algebraic Boundaries

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    We present a sampling theory for a class of binary images with finite rate of innovation (FRI). Every image in our model is the restriction of \mathds{1}_{\{p\leq0\}} to the image plane, where \mathds{1} denotes the indicator function and pp is some real bivariate polynomial. This particularly means that the boundaries in the image form a subset of an algebraic curve with the implicit polynomial pp. We show that the image parameters --i.e., the polynomial coefficients-- satisfy a set of linear annihilation equations with the coefficients being the image moments. The inherent sensitivity of the moments to noise makes the reconstruction process numerically unstable and narrows the choice of the sampling kernels to polynomial reproducing kernels. As a remedy to these problems, we replace conventional moments with more stable \emph{generalized moments} that are adjusted to the given sampling kernel. The benefits are threefold: (1) it relaxes the requirements on the sampling kernels, (2) produces annihilation equations that are robust at numerical precision, and (3) extends the results to images with unbounded boundaries. We further reduce the sensitivity of the reconstruction process to noise by taking into account the sign of the polynomial at certain points, and sequentially enforcing measurement consistency. We consider various numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance of our algorithm in reconstructing binary images, including low to moderate noise levels and a range of realistic sampling kernels.Comment: 12 pages, 14 figure