211 research outputs found

    Two-Scalar Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection: Numerical Simulations and Unifying Theory

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    We conduct direct numerical simulations for turbulent Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard (RB) convection, driven simultaneously by two scalar components (say, temperature and salt concentration) with different molecular diffusivities, and measure the respective fluxes and the Reynolds number. To account for the results, we generalize the Grossmann-Lohse theory for traditional RB convections~(Grossmann and Lohse, J. Fluid Mech., 407, 27-56; Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 3316-3319; Stevens et al., J. Fluid Mech., 730, 295-308) to this two-scalar turbulent convection. Our numerical results suggest that the generalized theory can successfully predict the overall trends for the fluxes of two scalars and the Reynolds number. In fact, for most of the parameters explored here, the theory can even predict the absolute values of the fluxes and the Reynolds number with good accuracy. The current study extends the generality of the Grossmann-Lohse theory in the area of the buoyancy-driven convection flows.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures, and 1 tabl

    Deformation statistics of sub-Kolmogorov-scale ellipsoidal neutrally buoyant drops in isotropic turbulence

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    Small droplets in turbulent flows can undergo highly variable deformations and orientational dynamics. For neutrally buoyant droplets smaller than the Kolmogorov scale, the dominant effects from the surrounding turbulent flow arise through Lagrangian time histories of the velocity gradient tensor. Here we study the evolution of representative droplets using a model that includes rotation and stretching effects from the surrounding fluid, and restoration effects from surface tension including a constant droplet volume constraint, while assuming that the droplets maintain an ellipsoidal shape. The model is combined with Lagrangian time histories of the velocity gradient tensor extracted from DNS of turbulence to obtain simulated droplet evolutions. These are used to characterize the size, shape and orientation statistics of small droplets in turbulence. A critical capillary number, CacCa_c is identified associated with unbounded growth of one or two of the droplet's semi-axes. Exploiting analogies with dynamics of polymers in turbulence, the CacCa_c number can be predicted based on the large deviation theory for the largest Finite Time Lyapunov exponent. Also, for sub-critical CaCa the theory enables predictions of the slope of the power-law tails of droplet size distributions in turbulence. For cases when the viscosities of droplet and outer fluid differ in a way that enables vorticity to decorrelate the shape from the straining directions, the large deviation formalism based on the stretching properties of the velocity gradient tensor loses validity and its predictions fail. Even considering the limitations of the assumed ellipsoidal droplet shape, the results highlight the complex coupling between droplet deformation, orientation and the local fluid velocity gradient tensor to be expected when small viscous drops interact with turbulent flows

    Physical mechanisms governing drag reduction in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with finite-size deformable bubbles

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    The phenomenon of drag reduction induced by injection of bubbles into a turbulent carrier fluid has been known for a long time; the governing control parameters and underlying physics is however not well understood. In this paper, we use three dimensional numerical simulations to uncover the effect of deformability of bubbles injected in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow on the overall drag experienced by the system. We consider two different Reynolds numbers for the carrier flow, i.e. Rei=5×103Re_i=5\times 10^3 and Rei=2×104Re_i=2\times 10^4; the deformability of the bubbles is controlled through the Weber number which is varied in the range We=0.012.0We=0.01 - 2.0. Our numerical simulations show that increasing the deformability of bubbles i.e., WeWe leads to an increase in drag reduction. We look at the different physical effects contributing to drag reduction and analyse their individual contributions with increasing bubble deformability. Profiles of local angular velocity flux show that in the presence of bubbles, turbulence is enhanced near the inner cylinder while attenuated in the bulk and near the outer cylinder. We connect the increase in drag reduction to the decrease in dissipation in the wake of highly deformed bubbles near the inner cylinder

    Deformable ellipsoidal bubbles in Taylor-Couette flow with enhanced Euler-Lagrange tracking

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    In this work we present numerical simulations of 10510^5 sub-Kolmogorov deformable bubbles dispersed in Taylor-Couette flow (a wall-bounded shear system) with rotating inner cylinder and outer cylinder at rest. We study the effect of deformability of the bubbles on the overall drag induced by the carrier fluid in the two-phase system. We find that an increase in deformability of the bubbles results in enhanced drag reduction due to a more pronounced accumulation of the deformed bubbles near the driving inner wall. This preferential accumulation is induced by an increase in the resistance on the motion of the bubbles in the wall-normal direction. The increased resistance is linked to the strong deformation of the bubbles near the wall which makes them prolate (stretched along one axes) and orient along the stream-wise direction. A larger concentration of the bubbles near the driving wall implies that they are more effective in weakening the plume ejections which results in stronger drag reduction effects. These simulations which are practically impossible with fully resolved techniques are made possible by coupling a sub-grid deformation model with two-way coupled Euler-Lagrangian tracking of sub-Kolmogorov bubbles dispersed in a turbulent flow field which is solved through direct numerical simulations. The bubbles are considered to be ellipsoidal in shape and their deformation is governed by an evolution equation which depends on the local flow conditions and their surface tension

    The effect of roll number on the statistics of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

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    A series of direct numerical simulations in large computational domains has been performed in order to probe the spatial feature robustness of the Taylor rolls in turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flow. The latter is the flow between two coaxial independently rotating cylinders of radius rir_i and ror_o, respectively. Large axial aspect ratios Γ=7\Gamma = 7-88 (with Γ=L/(rori)\Gamma = L/(r_o-r_i), and LL the axial length of the domain) and a simulation with Γ=14\Gamma=14 were used in order to allow the system to select the most unstable wavenumber and to possibly develop multiple states. The radius ratio was taken as η=ri/ro=0.909\eta=r_i/r_o=0.909, the inner cylinder Reynolds number was fixed to Rei=3.4104Re_i=3.4\cdot10^4, and the outer cylinder was kept stationary, resulting in a frictional Reynolds number of Reτ500Re_\tau\approx500, except for the Γ=14\Gamma=14 simulation where Rei=1.5104Re_i=1.5\cdot10^4 and Reτ240Re_\tau\approx240. The large-scale rolls were found to remain axially pinned for all simulations. Depending on the initial conditions, stable solutions with different number of rolls nrn_r and roll wavelength λz\lambda_z were found for Γ=7\Gamma=7. The effect of λz\lambda_z and nrn_r on the statistics was quantified. The torque and mean flow statistics were found to be independent of both λz\lambda_z and nrn_r, while the velocity fluctuations and energy spectra showed some box-size dependence. Finally, the axial velocity spectra was found to have a very sharp drop off for wavelengths larger than λz\lambda_z, while for the small wavelengths they collapse

    Turbulence decay towards the linearly-stable regime of Taylor-Couette flow

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    Taylor-Couette (TC) flow is used to probe the hydrodynamical stability of astrophysical accretion disks. Experimental data on the subcritical stability of TC are in conflict about the existence of turbulence (cf. Ji et al. Nature, 444, 343-346 (2006) and Paoletti et al., A&\&A, 547, A64 (2012)), with discrepancies attributed to end-plate effects. In this paper we numerically simulate TC flow with axially periodic boundary conditions to explore the existence of sub-critical transitions to turbulence when no end-plates are present. We start the simulations with a fully turbulent state in the unstable regime and enter the linearly stable regime by suddenly starting a (stabilizing) outer cylinder rotation. The shear Reynolds number of the turbulent initial state is up to Res105Re_s \sim10^5 and the radius ratio is η=0.714\eta=0.714. The stabilization causes the system to behave as a damped oscillator and correspondingly the turbulence decays. The evolution of the torque and turbulent kinetic energy is analysed and the periodicity and damping of the oscillations are quantified and explained as a function of shear Reynolds number. Though the initially turbulent flow state decays, surprisingly, the system is found to absorb energy during this decay.Comment: Preprint submitted to PRL, 12 pages, 5 figure

    Radial boundary layer structure and Nusselt number in Rayleigh-Benard convection

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    Results from direct numerical simulations for three dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1/2 and Pr=0.7 are presented. They span five decades of Ra from 2×1062\times 10^6 to 2×10112 \times10^{11}. Good numerical resolution with grid spacing \sim Kolmogorov scale turns out to be crucial to accurately calculate the Nusselt number, which is in good agreement with the experimental data by Niemela et al., Nature, 404, 837 (2000). In underresolved simulations the hot (cold) plumes travel further from the bottom (top) plate than in the fully resolved case, because the thermal dissipation close to the sidewall (where the grid cells are largest) is insufficient. We compared the fully resolved thermal boundary layer profile with the Prandtl-Blasius profile. We find that the boundary layer profile is closer to the Prandtl Blasius profile at the cylinder axis than close to the sidewall, due to rising plumes in that region.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure
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