1,584 research outputs found

    A comparison of the entanglement measures negativity and concurrence

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    In this paper we investigate two different entanglement measures in the case of mixed states of two qubits. We prove that the negativity of a state can never exceed its concurrence and is always larger then (1−C)2+C2−(1−C)\sqrt{(1-C)^2+C^2}-(1-C) where CC is the concurrence of the state. Furthermore we derive an explicit expression for the states for which the upper or lower bound is satisfied. Finally we show that similar results hold if the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation are compared

    Optimal teleportation with a mixed state of two qubits

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    We consider a single copy of a mixed state of two qubits and derive the optimal trace-preserving local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC) such as to maximize the fidelity of teleportation that can be achieved with this state. These optimal local operations turn out to be implementable by one-way communication, and always yields a teleportation fidelity larger than 2/3 if the original state is entangled. This maximal achievable fidelity is an entanglement measure and turns out to quantify the minimal amount of mixing required to destroy the entanglement in a quantum state.Comment: 5 pages, expanded version of part II of quant-ph/0203073(v2

    Renormalization and tensor product states in spin chains and lattices

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    We review different descriptions of many--body quantum systems in terms of tensor product states. We introduce several families of such states in terms of known renormalization procedures, and show that they naturally arise in that context. We concentrate on Matrix Product States, Tree Tensor States, Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz, and Projected Entangled Pair States. We highlight some of their properties, and show how they can be used to describe a variety of systems.Comment: Review paper for the special issue of J. Phys.

    Continuous Matrix Product States for Quantum Fields

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    We define matrix product states in the continuum limit, without any reference to an underlying lattice parameter. This allows to extend the density matrix renormalization group and variational matrix product state formalism to quantum field theories and continuum models in 1 spatial dimension. We illustrate our procedure with the Lieb-Liniger model

    Matrix product states represent ground states faithfully

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    We quantify how well matrix product states approximate exact ground states of 1-D quantum spin systems as a function of the number of spins and the entropy of blocks of spins. We also investigate the convex set of local reduced density operators of translational invariant systems. The results give a theoretical justification for the high accuracy of renormalization group algorithms, and justifies their use even in the case of critical systems

    Mapping local Hamiltonians of fermions to local Hamiltonians of spins

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    We show how to map local fermionic problems onto local spin problems on a lattice in any dimension. The main idea is to introduce auxiliary degrees of freedom, represented by Majorana fermions, which allow us to extend the Jordan-Wigner transformation to dimensions higher than one. We also discuss the implications of our results in the numerical investigation of fermionic systems.Comment: Added explicit mappin

    Multipartite entanglement in 2 x 2 x n quantum systems

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    We classify multipartite entangled states in the 2 x 2 x n (n >= 4) quantum system, for example the 4-qubit system distributed over 3 parties, under local filtering operations. We show that there exist nine essentially different classes of states, and they give rise to a five-graded partially ordered structure, including the celebrated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W classes of 3 qubits. In particular, all 2 x 2 x n-states can be deterministically prepared from one maximally entangled state, and some applications like entanglement swapping are discussed.Comment: 9 pages, 3 eps figure

    Variational Characterisations of Separability and Entanglement of Formation

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    In this paper we develop a mathematical framework for the characterisation of separability and entanglement of formation (EoF) of general bipartite states. These characterisations are of the variational kind, meaning that separability and EoF are given in terms of a function which is to be minimized over the manifold of unitary matrices. A major benefit of such a characterisation is that it directly leads to a numerical procedure for calculating EoF. We present an efficient minimisation algorithm and an apply it to the bound entangled 3X3 Horodecki states; we show that their EoF is very low and that their distance to the set of separable states is also very low. Within the same variational framework we rephrase the results by Wootters (W. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998)) on EoF for 2X2 states and present progress in generalising these results to higher dimensional systems.Comment: 11 pages RevTeX, 4 figure

    Exploiting quantum parallelism to simulate quantum random many-body systems

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    We present an algorithm that exploits quantum parallelism to simulate randomness in a quantum system. In our scheme, all possible realizations of the random parameters are encoded quantum mechanically in a superposition state of an auxiliary system. We show how our algorithm allows for the efficient simulation of dynamics of quantum random spin chains with known numerical methods. We propose an experimental realization based on atoms in optical lattices in which disorder could be simulated in parallel and in a controlled way through the interaction with another atomic species