2,242 research outputs found

    We don't need no education .... (Pink Floyd, The Wall) Multidisciplinary predialysis education programmes: pass or fail?

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    duces every pupil in a totalitarian way to ‘another brick in the wall’. Recently, much attention has been paid to timely referral and multidisciplinary predialysis education (MPE) programmes (for review see [1]). In this issue of Nephrol-ogy Dialysis Transplantation (NDT), Wu et al. [2] report the results of a non-randomized observational trial on the impact of an established MPE programme on the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or higher. The authors conclude that such anMPE programme decreases the number of patients ending up on dialysis, and reduces mortality. In what follows, we try to discuss why some methodological aspects of studying the effect of MPEmake that the questionwhether all centres should have MPE programmes cannot be answered by a definite ‘yes’; as such, we also try to offer some explanations why MP

    Deleting death and dialysis: Conservative care of cardio-vascular risk and kidney function loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD)

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    The uremic syndrome, which is the clinical expression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a complex amalgam of accelerated aging and organ dysfunctions, whereby cardio-vascular disease plays a capital role. In this narrative review, we offer a summary of the current conservative (medical) treatment options for cardio-vascular and overall morbidity and mortality risk in CKD. Since the progression of CKD is also associated with a higher cardio-vascular risk, we summarize the interventions that may prevent the progression of CKD as well. We pay attention to established therapies, as well as to novel promising options. Approaches that have been considered are not limited to pharmacological approaches but take into account lifestyle measures and diet as well. We took as many randomized controlled hard endpoint outcome trials as possible into account, although observational studies and post hoc analyses were included where appropriate. We also considered health economic aspects. Based on this information, we constructed comprehensive tables summarizing the available therapeutic options and the number and kind of studies (controlled or not, contradictory outcomes or not) with regard to each approach. Our review underscores the scarcity of well-designed large controlled trials in CKD. Nevertheless, based on the controlled and observational data, a therapeutic algorithm can be developed for this complex and multifactorial condition. It is likely that interventions should be aimed at targeting several modifiable factors simultaneously

    Towards integration of environmental and health impact assessments for wild capture fishing and farmed fish with particular reference to public health and occupational health dimensions

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    The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated into a wider public health assessment. This is in contrast to the extensive application of environmental impact assessments to fishing and the comparatively large body of research now generated on the public health effects of eating fish. The value of expanding and applying the broader assessments would be considerable because in 2004 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports there were 41,408,000 people in the total ‘fishing’ sector including 11,289,000 in aquaculture. The paper explores some of the complex interactions that occur with regard to fishing activities and proposes the wider adoption of health impact assessment tools in these neglected sectors through an integrated public health impact assessment tool

    Gut microbiota generation of protein-bound uremic toxins and related metabolites is not altered at different stages of chronic kidney disease see

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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins such as p-cresyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid, which originate in the gut. Intestinal bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids into p-cresol and indole, (further conjugated in the colon mucosa and liver) and indole-3-acetic acid. Here we measured fecal, plasma and urine metabolite concentrations; the contribution of gut bacterial generation to plasma protein-bound uremic toxins accumulation; and influx into the gut of circulating protein-bound uremic toxins at different stages of CKD. Feces, blood and urine were collected from 14 control individuals and 141 patients with CKD. Solutes were quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. To assess the rate of bacterial generation of p-cresol, indole and indole-3-acetic acid, fecal samples were cultured ex vivo. With CKD progression, an increase in protein-bound uremic toxins levels was observed in plasma, whereas the levels of these toxins and their precursors remained the same in feces and urine. Anaerobic culture of fecal samples showed no difference in ex vivo p-cresol, indole and indole-3-acetic acid generation. Therefore, differences in plasma protein-bound uremic toxins levels between different CKD stages cannot be explained by differences in bacterial generation rates in the gut, suggesting retention due to impaired kidney function as the main contributor to their increased plasma levels. Thus, as fractional clearance decreased with the progression of CKD, tubular clearance appeared to be more affected than the glomerular filtration rate, and there was no net increase in protein-bound uremic toxins influx into the gut lumen with increased plasma levels

    Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and 2 predict outcomes in advanced chronic kidney disease : a prospective cohort study

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    Background : Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2) have been associated to progression of renal failure, end stage renal disease and mortality in early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), mostly in the context of diabetic nephropathy. The predictive value of these markers in advanced stages of CKD irrespective of the specific causes of kidney disease has not yet been defined. In this study, the relationship between sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 and the risk for adverse cardiovascular events (CVE) and all-cause mortality was investigated in a population with CKD stage 4-5, not yet on dialysis, to minimize the confounding by renal function. Patients and methods : In 131 patients, CKD stage 4-5, sTNFR1, sTNFR2 were analysed for their association to a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or first non-fatal CVE by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. In the multivariate models, age, gender, CRP, eGFR and significant comorbidities were included as covariates. Results : During a median follow-up of 33 months, 40 events (30.5%) occurred of which 29 deaths (22.1%) and 11 (8.4%) first non-fatal CVE. In univariate analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 for negative outcome were 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-1.75) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06-1.20) respectively. After adjustment for clinical covariables (age, CRP, diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease) both sTNFRs remained independently associated to outcomes (HR: sTNFR1: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30-1.77; sTNFR2: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.20). A subanalysis of the non-diabetic patients in the study population confirmed these findings, especially for sTNFR1. Conclusion : sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 are independently associated to all-cause mortality or an increased risk for cardiovascular events in advanced CKD irrespective of the cause of kidney disease
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