14 research outputs found

    Table_1_Family and developmental history of female versus male adolescents with ADHD: diagnosis-specific overlap, few gender/sex differences.xlsx

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    BackgroundGender and sex differences in the development of children and adolescents are commonly found in the psychiatric examination. Family and developmental history is an important part of the clinical diagnostic interview, the basic examination technique. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with diagnosis-specific markers in family and development history. However, it is unclear to what extent ADHD-specific signs and narratives differ between females and males. The aim of this study was to assess and to compare the family and developmental history profiles of female versus male adolescents with ADHD.MethodsData were collected using the clinical diagnostic interview technique from parents of female and male patients diagnosed with ADHD (ICD-10  F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8) between the ages of 12 and 17  years (n = 92). The two groups were matched in pairs for sex, IQ and ICD-10 diagnosis (F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8). Interview data were operationalized in three categories: 0 - physiological marker, 1 - subclinical marker, 2 - clinical marker. The two groups were compared with two-way ANOVA.ResultsInformation about female in comparison to male adolescents were reported in the parental interview with few differences.ConclusionOur study suggests that family and developmental history of the neurodevelopmental disorder ADHD is only poorly influenced by gender or sex.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_Family and developmental history of female versus male adolescents with ADHD: diagnosis-specific overlap, few gender/sex differences.PDF

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    BackgroundGender and sex differences in the development of children and adolescents are commonly found in the psychiatric examination. Family and developmental history is an important part of the clinical diagnostic interview, the basic examination technique. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with diagnosis-specific markers in family and development history. However, it is unclear to what extent ADHD-specific signs and narratives differ between females and males. The aim of this study was to assess and to compare the family and developmental history profiles of female versus male adolescents with ADHD.MethodsData were collected using the clinical diagnostic interview technique from parents of female and male patients diagnosed with ADHD (ICD-10  F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8) between the ages of 12 and 17  years (n = 92). The two groups were matched in pairs for sex, IQ and ICD-10 diagnosis (F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8). Interview data were operationalized in three categories: 0 - physiological marker, 1 - subclinical marker, 2 - clinical marker. The two groups were compared with two-way ANOVA.ResultsInformation about female in comparison to male adolescents were reported in the parental interview with few differences.ConclusionOur study suggests that family and developmental history of the neurodevelopmental disorder ADHD is only poorly influenced by gender or sex.</p

    Neural correlates of altered sensorimotor gating in boys with Tourette Syndrome: A combined EMG/fMRI study

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    <p><i>Objectives</i>: It has been hypothesised that altered sensorimotor gating might be a core problem in Tourette Syndrome (TS). However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are elusive. <i>Methods</i>: We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of altered sensorimotor gating by means of prepulse inhibition (PPI) in 22 boys with TS and 22 healthy boys using tactile PPI. The electromyography of the startle response was recorded simultaneously to the acquisition of the fMRI images. <i>Results</i>: As expected, PPI of the startle response was reduced in boys with TS compared to the healthy boys. We found decreased PPI-related blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in boys with TS in the middle frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal cortex, cingulate gyrus and caudate body. In boys with TS PPI of the startle response was positively correlated to PPI-related BOLD activity in the superior parietal cortex. <i>Conclusions</i>: Our findings indicate that deficient sensorimotor gating in boys with TS is associated with reduced recruitment of brain regions responsible for the higher-order integration of somatosensory stimuli. Due to our strict sample selection we were able to reduce confounding by neural adaptation processes, long-term medication, gender or comorbidities.</p

    Table_2_Family and developmental history of female versus male adolescents with ADHD: diagnosis-specific overlap, few gender/sex differences.xlsx

    No full text
    BackgroundGender and sex differences in the development of children and adolescents are commonly found in the psychiatric examination. Family and developmental history is an important part of the clinical diagnostic interview, the basic examination technique. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with diagnosis-specific markers in family and development history. However, it is unclear to what extent ADHD-specific signs and narratives differ between females and males. The aim of this study was to assess and to compare the family and developmental history profiles of female versus male adolescents with ADHD.MethodsData were collected using the clinical diagnostic interview technique from parents of female and male patients diagnosed with ADHD (ICD-10  F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8) between the ages of 12 and 17  years (n = 92). The two groups were matched in pairs for sex, IQ and ICD-10 diagnosis (F90.0, F90.1 and F98.8). Interview data were operationalized in three categories: 0 - physiological marker, 1 - subclinical marker, 2 - clinical marker. The two groups were compared with two-way ANOVA.ResultsInformation about female in comparison to male adolescents were reported in the parental interview with few differences.ConclusionOur study suggests that family and developmental history of the neurodevelopmental disorder ADHD is only poorly influenced by gender or sex.</p

    Stroop-Task description.

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    <p>Items of Colour- and Counting-Stroop. Correct responses are “blue”, “yellow”, “green” and “red” for the Colour-Stroop and “3, “1”, “4” and “2” for the Counting-Stroop. Responses were given on a custom-made trapezoid four-choice response pad.</p

    Colour discrimination and attention.

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    <p>The comorbidity of ADHD+CTD is characterized by additive effects on colour discrimination and attention. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue colour discrimination test (above) revealed for ADHD and CTD additive effects on error scores (confidence intervals with p = .05) of the blue-yellow (left) and red-green (right) axis. Difficulties with sustained attention in the Frankfurt Attention Inventory as indicated by the number (FAIR-L, below left, confidence intervals with p = .05) and proportion (FAIR-Q, below right) of attentively processed items during the 6 min testing are present in children with ADHD but not CTD.</p

    Congruency effects in the single-trial Stroop tasks.

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    <p>This Figure shows confidence intervals (p = .05) of the Congruency effects (as the respective differences in performance parameters between incongruent minus congruent conditions) from Colour- (left) and Counting-Stroop (right). Reaction-times were significantly slower in incongruent trials of both Stroop-Tests in all four groups (as the respective confidence intervals indicated by vertical bars around the respective mean do not include zero), and did not reveal any group-differences (as no mean lie outside the confidence intervals of comparison, see line A, above). Accuracy was significantly lower in incongruent trials of the Counting Stroop similarly for all groups (different from zero and negative in all groups, and all confidence intervals overlap with the respective means), but in the Colour Stroop interference liability on accuracy was present only in the pure ADHD and CTD groups, while Controls and children with ADHD+TIC did not show reduced accuracy in incongruent trials and showed less congruency effect as compared to both other groups (line B). The combined Speed-Accuracy parameter (line C, mean difference incongruent minus congruent trials of z-standardized reaction-time and accuracy scores) showed in the Colour Stroop (left) elevated interference load in the pure ADHD and pure CTD groups than in the controls and comorbid ADHD+TIC groups only, but no significant group differences in the Counting-Stroop (right).</p

    Effect of <i>NRGN</i> risk variant on brain function.

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    <p>Functional map illustrating increased neural activity in rs12541 TT homozygotes compared to C carriers. SSC, somatosensory cortex; CC, cingulate cortex. Results were cluster-corrected and z-values are represented according to the color code.</p

    Effect of <i>NRGN</i> risk variant on cortical thickness and ACC volume.

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    <p>a) Cortical statistical map illustrating reduced cortical thickness for rs12807809 C carriers compared to TT homozygotes. The -log(CWP-value) is represented according to the color code. b) Boxplot showing mean and two standard errors of the standardized residuals for the effects of <i>NRGN</i> rs12807809 genotype on left rostal ACC volume controlled for intracranial volume, age, gender, diagnosis and scanner field strength.</p
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